Is census a small coin of the United States of America or not?
In our article we will discuss a well-known term. This word is often found in everyday life. It is used by other people of different gender, age, social status on the street, in the store, on the market, etc. Readers will learn the interpretation of the term "qualifications".
Definition of the term "qualification"
In Russian, this word appeared in the XVIII century. It was formed from the Latin noun census, which translates as "property valuation", "census". In ancient Rome, the so-called assessment of property of citizens for the calculation of taxes. The following words are considered synonymous: census, degree, quality, submit. The modern concept of qualification is as follows:
- Cenz is a census in England and the United States of America.
- A census is a copper coin of Holland and the United States of America.
- A census is a condition that limits the access of individuals to certain activities.It can be age, educational, property.
- A census is a condition that is required for an organization to be added to any list or registry.
The age qualification is the age fixed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, upon reaching which it is allowed to participate in elections, to engage in separate activities. For example, in many countries suffrage is exercised by persons over the age of 18.
In some countries, when selecting candidates for certain positions, the lower and upper limits of the age limit are established. For example, in elections to the national representative bodies of Italy, candidates must be at least 18 years old and no older than 40 years old.
For your information:
By the beginning of the XXI century, the percentage of the age group from 18 to 24 years was: in Russia - 8%, in the United States of America - 7.5%.
The age limit is applied in various areas of public life in the Russian Federation:
- Family law. There are restrictions on marriage, adoptions of children, alimony payments, custody, etc. For example, you can enter into marriage from the age of 16.
- Criminal or administrative law. There are restrictions on the age of liability for criminal and administrative offenses.For example, the Criminal Code establishes that from the age of 14, adolescents may be responsible for their actions.
- Civil law. There are limitations in certain areas of society. For example, some films are allowed to watch only adolescents who have reached the age of 16.
- Constitutional law. There are restrictions to participate in elections. For example, a candidate who has reached the age of 35 may become president.
The educational qualification is a requirement of the current legislation of the Russian Federation, according to which the right to vote, as well as some positions are granted to citizens with a certain level of education. For example, in accordance with Art. 46 of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation, there is a requirement to admit to the pedagogical activities of citizens with higher or secondary education who meet special qualification standards.
It should be noted that citizens are not allowed to separate positions:
- deprived of the right to engage in relevant activities;
- who are declared incapacitated in the manner established by the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation;
- having a criminal record;
- which have the diseases established by the list of UK FZ.
In other words, educational qualification is the presence of any higher or secondary education. In the legislation of the Russian Federation there are clear requirements for the specialty. For example, art. 4 of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation establishes that citizens with higher specialized or legal education may engage in judicial activities.
For your information:
By the beginning of XXI, the following percentage of citizens with higher education was formed in public life in different countries: Russia - 55%, Japan - 40%, United States of America - 35%, Switzerland - 25%, Czech Republic - 15%, Brazil - 10%.
Property qualification is a requirement of the law, according to which, the right to vote is granted to citizens who own property of a certain value or regularly pay taxes not lower than a certain amount. For example, a candidate who owns property of at least $ 5,000 may be elected to the Senate of Canada.
In many countries, the tradition has been preserved: to choose candidates for some positions who own real estate of a certain value or have a certain annual income. Currently, property qualification is not a common phenomenon.It is contrary to the principle of equal rights of citizens.
For example, in certain regions of the Russian Federation, deputies participate directly in elections in the area or outside of it, but with real estate or property in the relevant territory. This is a modern version of the property qualification.
This is the interpretation of the word "qualification"! The definition of this term is of great importance not only for people who occupy important positions in certain areas of activity, but also for citizens who simply participate in elections leading the household.