Atopic dermatitis in infants: treatment, symptoms
The scourge of our century is allergic reactions, not sparing even newborns. At the same time, the share of diseases in this group accounts for more than 50% of atopic dermatitis. Doctors are very concerned about this situation. According to the observations of experts, a couple of decades ago, pathology was detected only in 2-6% of the world's population, and by 2014 the figure had tripled. The spread of the disease does not stop.
What kind of treacherous disease?
Previously, science believed that atopic dermatitis in infants occurs against the background of hereditary predisposition. However, modern medicine also considers the contaminated environment, the presence of chemical components in food and other factors to be the culprit for the appearance of the disease. All this in a complex negatively affects the children's body.
The disease triumphantly marches on the skin of people, leaving typical manifestations. It should be noted that even a completely healthy and strong parents can have a baby with a genetic predisposition.Pathology develops in the first months of the baby’s life, but at first the eruptions are hardly noticeable and do not bother the mother. In the absence of proper therapy, atopic dermatitis is localized in infants and affects new areas.
The painful condition adversely affects the nervous system of the newborn: itchy blisters cause discomfort, provoke crying, upset digestive disorders. Independent forces without the involvement of medical care cannot eliminate atopic dermatitis in infants. How to avoid a similar problem, to prevent rashes? We will understand further.
The epithelial tissue of an infant diagnosed with atopic dermatitis quickly loses moisture, and significant changes occur in it that disrupt lipid production. Also, the pH level changes (acid-base medium), which provokes a decrease in immunoglobulin and leads to an inflammatory process. Often, fungal and bacterial antigens join this.
On the surface of the epidermis and near the blood vessels of the dermis accumulate harmful microbes that damage the structure of healthy cells and contribute to the release of histamine into the matrix (intercellular space), which causes an inflammatory reaction.Atopic dermatitis in infants tends to localize on the folds, elbows and knees, groin, cheeks, head. The rash does not go away for a long time, leaving dark, dry marks on the surface of the skin.
Science highlights several causes of a negative reaction on the skin of an infant. Knowing all the nuances, you can promptly prevent the occurrence of the disease or reduce exacerbations. Atopic dermatitis in infants causes is as follows:
- Genetic factor. If the mother has this allergen, then in 50% it will appear in the child. In the presence of the disease in both sexes, the risk of development increases by 1.5 times. The appearance of pathology in perfectly healthy parents (10%) is not excluded.
- Unformed digestive system. In infancy, the digestive tract organs do not yet produce the necessary amount of enzymes to break down the incoming food, so some nutrients are poorly absorbed. The remnants of undigested food begin to decompose, ferment, provoke gas formation. As a result, there is a violation of the "chair", colic, red skin rash.
- Infiltration of foreign allergens when the baby eats mother's milk. Occurs due to incorrect diet of women (chocolate, fruits, legumes, whole milk, coffee, smoked meats, pickles). Doctors say that in the first six months of lactation the menu should be carefully thought out.
- Lack of hygienic care or insufficient sanitization of the room. Direct contact with dust, pet hair, fungi causes atopic dermatitis in infants. Komarovsky (pediatric pediatrician) believes that poor living conditions adversely affect his health. Constant contact with exogenous substances, according to the doctor, will only aggravate the problem.
There are other sources that cause allergies: early weaning, wearing synthetic clothes, frequent changes of adapted milk formulas, violation of the timing of complementary feeding, helminthic invasion, and hormonal disorders. It is important not just to get rid of the external manifestations with the help of various ointments that give a temporary effect. If you do not eradicate the disease from the inside, then the rash and spots are formed again.
Pediatricians, dermatologists and pulmonologists say with one voice that the sooner manifestations and rational treatment begin, the likelihood of a positive outcome is high - elimination of the outbreak. Characteristic signs usually appear after reaching three months of age: red scaly spots are visible on the cheeks and gluteal region. Subsequently, they appear on the head and become covered with a crust.
The rash spreads to the elbow and knee bends, characterized by swelling, dryness, intense itching. In the absence of therapy instead of spots appear bubbles, which, bursting, leaving weeping erosion. In addition, intestinal disorders, nervous and respiratory disorders of atopic dermatitis in infants can cause.
Symptoms should alert the mom and move to contact the medical center. It is very important to undergo comprehensive treatment before the age of six, otherwise the predictions will be unfavorable. As they mature, the clinical picture will be even more depressing, others will be added to already existing allergens.
It should be understood that atopic dermatitis is a complex disease (in infants). Treatment can be prescribed by both a pediatrician and an allergist-immunologist.After a visual inspection of the lesions, a study is carried out and the necessary analyzes are taken:
- grease from the throat;
- provocation tests on food, household, medicinal allergens;
-USI of the peritoneal area.
Identifying the true cause is a difficult and time-consuming task. The use of antihistamines without specifying the diagnosis is unacceptable and dangerous for the life of the baby. To exterminate the allergen with drugs alone, it is necessary to follow a certain diet, eliminate contact with negative sources, strengthen the child’s defenses.
Therapy is mainly based on the balanced diet of the mother. Particular attention should be paid to the food base. Completely excluded from the diet fried, flour, fatty and sweet dishes. Prohibited the use of red vegetables and fruits, as well as nuts, dairy products, spices. If the child is on artificial feeding, then give preference to mixtures with the full content of hydrolysis of proteins.
Do not rush to the lure, because these children have an undeveloped enzyme system.It is advisable to consult a pediatrician when and how much food to give, if he is diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. In infants (the mother's diet can be gradually expanded) against the background of this disease weakens the immune system, appetite disappears, there are pain in the abdomen. To eliminate these symptoms, it is important to strictly carry out the complex of prescribed therapeutic measures.
Reception of medications
To eliminate the external manifestations (dryness, peeling, oozing erosion, itching), various ointments based on papaverine, dexapanthenol, naphthalan, zinc are prescribed. Therapy involves the use of antiseptic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory dressings, the use of emulsions and masks - in severe form. According to the testimony of a specialist, Fenistil gel is prescribed.
Atopic dermatitis in infants, the treatment of which takes place under the strict supervision of a physician, is not complete without the use of antihistamine, steroid drugs. Sometimes hormone-containing agents of the first generation are connected. The use of local antibacterial powders has been substantiated.With a complicated course, mother and baby are hospitalized.
Auxiliary treatment: physiotherapy and herbal medicine
Along with drug-based methods, traditional medicine is actively used and physiotherapeutic procedures are performed that eliminate symptoms, improve the general condition and shorten the use of steroid components. Atopic dermatitis in infants can be treated with the help of laser therapy, EHF radiation, phonophoresis. To relieve itching, minimize the rash will help bath based on plant components: chamomile, oak bark, series.
Atopic dermatitis in infants: how to help your baby - the principles of care
The basic hygienic procedure is to wash the child daily without the use of scourers and alkaline agents that dry the epidermis. Instead of soap, doctors advise you to purchase special hypoallergenic gels that help preserve the lipid layer and relieve inflammation. After the bath, you can not wipe away a sick baby, you should lightly blot water droplets and apply a regenerating cream prescribed by a specialist.
Atopic dermatitis in infants requires special care. Komarovsky recommends maintaining the skin in a constant moisture, avoid its drying. Control the level of humidity in the room, daily cleaning. Wear natural breathable clothing on the baby.