Basic principles of dialectics in philosophy
The principles of dialectics can be seen in the history of philosophy since ancient times. Elements of this theory of universal communication and development through contradictions are found in Heraclitus and Socrates. A similar method of arguing their views used in ancient India. Plato with his "Dialogues" gave this concept popularity, which it has not lost to this day. In the Middle Ages, Meister Eckhart and Nikolai Kuzansky talked about the coincidence of different origins. In the Renaissance, a treatise by Giordano Bruno on the unity of opposites appeared. German classical philosophy elevated the dialectic to the rank of the scientific method of the theory of knowledge. She gave her a conceptual and categorical form. Moreover, if Kant used this method as a limitation and critique of theoretical and practical reason, then the principles of Hegel's dialectic reveal the contradictions that drive being, nature, and history and determine the development of the spirit.
Principles of dialectics in philosophy
Usually, the definition of this theory is given based on how German thinkers understood it. For Hegel, the basic principle of dialectics is the principle of contradiction and negation. He says that human concepts that develop in the process of scientific research eventually reveal their one-sidedness and limitations. With the development of concepts, it turns out that they begin to contradict themselves and, thus, deny what is their essence. Dialectics, on the other hand, shows the connection between these categories and demonstrates exactly how scientific thought unfolds. The principles of dialectics from the point of view of Hegel indicate to us that everything that exists is transient and constantly changing, because it contains something else inside (contradiction). When it goes outside, the object overcomes its own boundaries and becomes itself different. He does the opposite of what he was. So is the development.
Comprehension of opposites in unity
What is the basic principle of dialectics? Of course, this development. That is a change of objects and consciousness. Dialectics believes that this development takes place according to certain laws. Moreover, it is purposeful.Proponents of this theory believe that development is one of the fundamental properties of matter. The principles of dialectics in philosophy provide that not only changes occur in nature and spirit, but also processes involving the creation of a new, self-movement, ability to reproduce. Therefore, not only development is one of the main principles of dialectics. The movement plays a very important role in it. After all, it is inherently inherent in the unity of being and non-being, identity and difference, disappearance and appearance.
The basic principles of dialectics are based on such important concepts as communication, interaction and attitude. They are very important for this philosophical theory. Through communication, we comprehend how mutually determined the things and phenomena of our world are. It is not only and not so much about nature, but about society and consciousness. Varieties of connections can be innumerable. They are universal and singular, permanent and random, necessary and irrelevant. For scientific knowledge is very important to study the recurring regular relationships. In order to understand dialectics as a theory of development, it is necessary to realize the principle of interaction, which determines the influence of mutual objects.In addition, there are different relationships between the objects of the world and the phenomena of consciousness. Each thing is itself and, at the same time, something else, based on its properties. And the latter are revealed only in the process of relation to other subjects or in comparison with them. This characterizes the interrelation of elements of any system.
The basic principles of dialectics. Materialism
The theory of universal communication and development has initial ideas that underlie its foundation. It can be said that these are grounds that, along with the laws and categories of dialectics, reflect the most general processes in the changes of objects and phenomena of objective reality and subjective reality. They also perform a methodological function in scientific and philosophical knowledge. If we touch on the principles of materialist dialectics, then the most important pivot here is monism. This is a recognition that the world, all its objects and phenomena have a common basis. It is material, eternal and primary. The spirit, from the point of view of this version of the dialectic, is secondary. In addition, in the materialist theory of development, the universal connection is recognized as the main one.Just human knowledge is too limited, and therefore we can not always fix it experimentally. Another principle of materialist dialectics can be called the theory of development from lower to higher. It occurs in the direction of "a spiral" through the overcoming of contradictions, and each next stage is the negation of the previous one.
The recognition of the universal connection between phenomena and phenomena of nature, thinking and society is one that unites all the principles of dialectics. This requires a systematic study of objects, facts and relationships between them, in contrast to the so-called metaphysical method, which considers the world as a set of certain isolated phenomena, without taking into account their complexity. Materialistic theory also suggests that the universal principles of dialectics extend to nature and society. They view these spheres as various forms of self-development of matter and social consciousness.
Dialectics as a theory of knowledge. Basic moments
In the field of epistemology, this approach requires adherence to some basic bases. First of all, it is necessary to consider things and phenomena of reality objectively, in motion, and in development. But that is not all. It is also necessary to take into account their self-development.The dialectical method used in scientific research examines the presence of internal contradictions in the phenomenon under study. So you can find out the internal sources of its self-movement. After all, the materialist dialectic proceeds from the concept that objects and phenomena exist and develop through the unity of opposites.
Relation to laws
Systematization of this philosophical method allows us to call differently the leading ideas of this concept. Therefore, the basic principles and laws of dialectics often coincide. In this regard, we can say that this philosophical theory is based on the principle of unity and struggle of opposites. That is, she recognizes that everything that exists in this world and in our minds has certain sides that are at once hostile to each other and interact up to coincidence and transition into each other. It also relies on the principle of denial of the previous stage of development. This means that in the process of moving a certain quality or trait is not simply destroyed or discarded, but “removed”, reborn at a new stage. The basic principles and laws of dialectics contain in themselves such a moment as the transition of quantitative changes into qualitative, as well as vice versa.In the philosophical sense of the word, one can estimate the development of the whole being.
Link to categories
Since the principles are called the basic ideas, they are often reflected in basic concepts. They are used to express the most common and essential features, properties, connections and relationships of objects and phenomena. In dialectics, such concepts have the status of categories. These are universal forms of our thinking, when we so generalize the features and qualities of things and phenomena, that we resort to the process of abstraction. Therefore, the principles and categories of dialectics are often very closely related. There are some fundamental concepts that can be both the foundations and beginnings of a given philosophical concept. Among them are development, connection, opposition, denial, formation, necessity, and others.
The main principle remaining after Hegel
There is one fundamental thesis that all variants of dialectics recognized, but its practical application was not always successful. This is a phenomenon of identity. Numerous principles and categories of dialectics were successfully adopted in its materialistic version, but with the implementation of this basis some difficulties arose. In Hegel, this concept is the most significant.Logic, being a spirit, develops in nature, then in human thinking and cognition. This occurs in accordance with the dialectical laws. The materialists, however, experienced difficulties in recognizing the "logicality" of the world, and therefore began to present it in the following form. They said that the dialectic helps to study nature. Logic demonstrates the laws of thinking. And the theory of knowledge binds them together.
The triads of thinking and their criticism
The dialectical logic of Hegel was repeatedly questioned by later philosophers, in particular, Karl Popper. Considering the famous Hegelian triad of cognition (the thesis - its opposite - synthesis), the scientist, recognizing a certain benefit behind this principle, notices that he is deprived of objectivity. Criticizing the main categories and principles of dialectics, Popper explains his point of view as follows: any synthesis often depends on the position of a person who comes to one or another conclusion. Terms such as negation, contradiction and unity of classical logic and dialectics have different meanings. And the inaccuracy of terminology may mislead the researcher. So you can fall into dogmatism.
Principles of dialectical theory after Hegel and Marx
Development remains one of the fundamental, core ideas in modern theory. It combines the specific properties of all types of movement. However, the latter, in order to be developed, must accumulate four basic features. First, it is the impossibility of returning to the initial stage of the beginning of the movement. Secondly, it is a transition from the old to the new. And finally, goal-setting (aspiration) and repeatability (at a different stage). As mentioned above, modern theory also places the source of development in the most changing phenomenon. Principles of dialectics also include the idea of universal communication. It is a condition for the realization of development. After all, this kind of change can be traced not in isolation, but in the connection between the internal and external, real and possible, the whole and the parts.
Method and system in action
Despite the cautious and critical attitude on the part of modern philosophers, the principles, categories and laws of dialectics continue to attract different thinkers. In particular, they use them as a method that helps overcome formal dualism and monistic reductionism.Dialectic principles allow us to look at opposites in their interaction. It is very useful in practice in biology, in the study of living organisms. Some theories of modern quantum physics can only be explained by applying the dialectical mode of thinking. In philosophy, this method also makes it possible to recognize false alternatives (for example, materialism and idealism, rationalism and empiricism) and makes it possible to overcome these contradictions in order to achieve synthesis. The principles, categories and laws of dialectics have become the basis of some trends in modern theology. For example, they became very fashionable in Protestantism after the First World War and led to a positive reappraisal of many of the ideas of the early Reformation.