Belt conveyor: work, layout and device. Operation of belt conveyors
Today it's hard to imaginehigh-performance production without the use of a conveyor. For the movement of goods, including loose goods, use closed tapes. It can be said that this is a continuous unit that has a load-carrying body (flexible tape). Let's take a closer look at what a conveyor belt is, what its purpose is, how it is used, and what are the subtleties of operating this equipment.
Scope and purpose
To date, this is one of the mostperspective types of transport, which is almost indispensable for large freight flows. In addition, the conveyor belt is an indispensable part of any heavy and light production. It is used in metallurgy, for transportation of bulk materials, in the food industry, medicine and so on. The principle of operation and the device in all cases are almost identical. The differences can be in the form of tape, its carrying capacity and flexibility, as well as the power of the drive. In most cases, this kind of conveyor allows you to partially automate production and reduce the amount of manual labor. With this in mind, the transported vehicles under consideration are subject to stringent requirements. For the most part, this concerns the strength, performance and interchangeability of worn tape. The units are capable of operating at a temperature range of -50 to +45, which is determined by the technical characteristics of the bearing body.
Work and the device of the belt conveyor
Tape - the working body of the conveyor, preliminarystretches and connects. The force of friction between the belt and the drive drum is brought into action. And the determining factor is the frictional force, due to which the load-carrying and traction body moves. To eliminate the deflection of the belt along the length of the conveyor, rollers are installed, on which it is supported during movement. As you can see, the unit is quite simple. An interesting point is the speed of replacement of worn tape. This is done in the following way: during the operation of the conveyor at the place of docking, the load-bearing body is steamed and a new belt is fastened to it, by riveting or vulcanizing it. After the drive drum makes a complete cycle, the second end is fixed. This approach is good in that there is practically no downtime of the equipment during operation, since installation takes several minutes, although much depends on the type of traction body. Brushes are installed to clean the tape, and centering rollers are used to avoid skewing. The device of the belt conveyor is such that the machine can be used in many industries. Now let's go further.
Advantages of using a belt conveyor
Let's look at the main advantages,which this unit possesses. The main advantage of the conveyor belt is that it can transport goods to a very large distance. In some cases, the length of the load-bearing organ can reach 3-5 kilometers. No other conveyor can be so long. This is due to the large weight, complex construction and, most importantly, the high cost of the equipment. In the case of a conveyor belt, there are no problems. Another undeniable advantage is the high productivity. Sometimes the speed can reach 6-10 m / s, with a belt width of 2.4-3.0 meters. In this case, the productivity can exceed 20-30 thousand tons per hour. In addition, the conveyor belt refers to universal transport lines. Due to the fact that you can move a variety of goods. Another important advantage is the possibility of moving loads in an inclined position. With the increase in the angle and duration of the conveyor, its speed decreases.
Disadvantages of belt conveyors
It should be said that there are significantThe disadvantages that limit the scope of transporting devices of this type. The main disadvantage is the high price of tape and rollers. In most cases, the traction and weight-carrying body costs about 30% of the total cost of the installation, which is quite a lot. Although much depends on the purpose, as well as technical characteristics (material, number of layers, etc.). Another drawback is that the drum of the belt conveyor moves the belt by friction. This limits the angle of ascent, so it can not exceed 20 degrees. In addition, it is problematic to move the pulverized loads, which during the movement can partially evaporate and crumble. It is difficult to work at too low temperatures, as well as at too high temperatures. Thermal action will change the characteristics of the flexible tape, and also leads to destruction.
Operation of belt conveyors
As noted somewhat above, LC canwork at high speeds. This makes the belt conveyor more productive than other transporting units. The main feature of the operation is that it is possible to create complex routes. For example, you can make a complex route with bends, horizontal and inclined areas. Even under severe operating conditions (temperature drops, high dust content, etc.), the conveyor belt ensures reliable operation without failures. In most cases, with proper maintenance, you can clearly predict the period when the traction organ has failed. This allows you to operate the device without downtime. To date, a huge number of drives have been developed, which provided the work of the LC. With the increase in length, several engines are installed, which ensure normal operation. With the output of one drive, the second one will work. In this case, the performance will be lower, but there will be no downtime.
Arrangement and construction of tension and drive stations
The drive of the belt conveyor consists of an engine,gearbox and several couplings. In the bending points, roller or deflecting batteries are installed to create a smooth transition. The whole structure, together with the drive, is mounted on the foundation, which must be laid beforehand. The drive station consists of a drive, as well as a loading box, and the part where the tensioner and hopper is located is referred to as a tension station. Between these two stations is the middle part of the conveyor, it is made up of several linear sections. The latter consist of identical linear sections connected by bolts. And now let's talk about what are the belt conveyors and what is their fundamental difference. There are several interesting points.
Classification of belt conveyors
There are some signs on which the device data can be divided into several groups:
- on the field of application: there are general purpose, special and underground (transportation of people, coils, as well as mobile);
- in the shape of the route: simple (with a straight section), complex (with an inclined broken path), as well as curvilinear or spatial (bending in the plane of the load-bearing body);
- in the direction of movement of the cargo: lifting and lowering;
- by the shape of the tape and the location of the cargo: there is a flat and grooved tape in various modifications;
- on the slope of the route: horizontal, inclined, steep-angle (angle more than 22 degrees) and vertical.
It is worthwhile to understand that, in addition to this, the schemebelt conveyor provides for the use of a different traction and weight-bearing body. Tapes are rubber-cloth, rubber-wire, wire, and also steel. The tape type is selected based on the conditions in which it will work. For example, steel traction organs are used to operate at high temperatures (up to 850 degrees), just like wire ones, which can transport cargo at an operating temperature of 1,100 degrees Celsius.
Separately, I need to say a few words abouttransporting devices operating underground. It is noteworthy that the scheme of the belt conveyor of this type is somewhat different. The degree of reliability increases several times. This is due to the fact that the load-carrying body is used to transport people, as well as heavy piece goods, and all this is done in cramped conditions. The drive, for example, has two tension drums, which makes it possible to make the device not only more powerful, but also to provide sufficient reliability.
To date, the popularity of tapeconveyors is constantly growing. For this simple reason, all new types of load-bearing organs are constantly being developed. In particular, it is important to create high-strength heat-resistant parts. For example, you need to increase the life of the rollers, which constantly go out of their system. It can be said that the work of a belt conveyor is considered quite cheap. If you move cargo for a distance of 30 km with the help of LC, it will be much more economical than doing it by road.