Ultrasound BCA - what is it?
The main cause of mortality in Russia is cardiovascular diseases. In order to prevent the occurrence of this problem, timely diagnosis of disorders associated with them and appropriate treatment are necessary.
What is it - an ultrasound scan of the BCA?
Description of the concept
One of the modern methods of diagnosing such diseases is an ultrasound study of the brachiocephalic arteries.
Ultrasonography of the BCA is a technique for non-invasive diagnosis of head vessels, which are the veins and main arteries that supply blood to the brain, as well as tissues. According to him, the main volume of blood enters the brain. With the defeat of these vessels arises a lot of unpleasant symptoms, as well as extremely dangerous complications that threaten the patient's life. It is quite simple to make an ultrasound scan of the BCA To do this, contact the large diagnostic center of your city.
The main disease affecting the brachiocephalic arteries is atherosclerosis. The most common ailment in the modern world.On the walls of blood vessels, cholesterol plaques are formed, which lead to impaired blood flow, which may affect the entire cardiovascular system of the body. This leads to high blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, etc.
What is it - ultrasonography of BTSA, interests many.
Anatomical structure of the BCA
The main components of the BCA are the brachiocephalic trunk and its branches, the left subclavian artery, the left common carotid artery. These vessels begin in the aortic arch. On the brachiocephalic trunk, 2 branches are created - the right subclavian and right common carotid artery. It also forms ramifications, from which the right and left external and internal carotid arteries depart.
All this ensures the normal functioning of the brain, saturating it with oxygen, glucose and other beneficial substances. However, in the event of the occurrence of pathologies of these vessels, the blood supply to the brain suffers, this leads to significant disruptions in the work of the brain and the vascular system as a whole. Ultrasound scan of the BCA is used to detect any such pathology.
What is it - an ultrasound scan of the BCA?
This is a research method that is carried out using special ultrasound equipment and is a duplex study that combines all the features of two-dimensional,and may also include Doppler scanning. This method of conducting this study helps the specialist to see the image of the vessels, as well as the adjacent brain tissues, and to make a conclusion about their anatomical structure. The visualization is presented in black and white, and the Doppler study shows, as a rule, a color image, in which it can be concluded that blood flows through the vessels. In this case, arterial blood is represented in the image in red, and venous, for convenience of perception - in blue.
The ultrasound technique of the BCA (brachiocephalic arteries) helps to assess the following points:
- The volume of blood flow in the brain.
- Structural anatomy of the veins and arteries of the brain.
- The presence or absence of atherosclerotic plaques in the lumen of the arteries of the brain.
- The peculiarity of the blood flow of the right and left parts of the human brain, as well as their comparison.
- Implementation of the study of adjacent tissues.
How to do ultrasound of the BCA?
This type of research is carried out using special portable or stationary devices that are equipped with special sensors that allow you to transmit the received image to the monitor of the device.
Who is assigned to such a study?
Ultrasonography of the BCA vessels can be performed both routinely and as an emergency. If doctors suspect a patient of any acute pathology of cerebral vessels, a duplex scan of the BCA should be performed immediately. These conditions include:
- all types of strokes;
- any violation of the blood circulation of the brain;
- stratification of the aneurysm;
- acute thrombosis of one of the brachiocephalic vessels;
- injuries of the BCA;
- foreign bodies in the lumen of blood vessels.
Ultrasound examination of the neck vessels is performed on an emergency basis, either within a few hours after establishing a preliminary diagnosis, or immediately at the time of applying for emergency medical care.
The study is routinely carried out in cases where the patient experiences symptoms that indicate the pathology of cerebral vessels.
These symptoms may be:
- migraines and persistent headaches;
- visual impairment;
- unpredictable mood disorders;
- impaired speech;
- numbness of some parts of the head and face.
Who is at risk?
The doctor may also assign other categories of patients who do not have similar symptoms of this disease, but are at risk because of the likelihood of these disorders. These patient groups include:
- people over 45;
- people suffering from nicotine addiction;
- people suffering from atrial fibrillation;
- people suffering from diabetes;
- patients who are scheduled for brain surgery;
- patients who have previously suffered acute pathology of the BCA;
- people with overweight and obesity.
Ultrasound examination of the BCA and cerebral vessels has recently been prescribed more and more.
Preparation for the study
Ultrasound examination of the BCA on an emergency basis is carried out, naturally, without any preparation for it, since the patient who is going to conduct this study may be in serious condition, and the study, however, is extremely necessary, because tactics depend on its results. primary treatment of such a patient. The diagnostic value of this event is not capable of radically disturbing either the medications taken by the patient, or food, or a severe physical condition.Decoding ultrasound BTSA should conduct a high-class specialist.
Routine research also does not require special preparatory procedures. However, in order to make it as informative as possible, it is recommended that the patient restrict the ingestion of such beverages and foods that can cause vasospasm before the patient. For example, the patient should refrain from taking alcoholic beverages, strong tea and coffee, energy drinks, as well as cola or pepsi.
Hygiene of the upper part of the body is recommended prior to the study. If the patient suffers from any purulent lesions of the skin of the neck, then in this case it is best to postpone the examination until these pathologies are completely cured. This is due to the fact that during the study, the surface of human skin is treated with a special gel, which increases echogenicity. The gel has a water base. Exposure of the substance to the affected skin can contribute to the spread of the infection. Thus, if the study does not have the character of urgency, then there is an opportunity to transfer it until complete recovery.In addition, it is advisable to take a clean diaper and towel with you for an ultrasound of the BCA.
Ultrasonography of the BCA is carried out in the functional diagnostics room, and this is done both in the hospital and in the clinic. The procedure is absolutely painless, does not cause discomfort and is well tolerated by patients.
The study room is equipped with special equipment. The patient should undress to the waist and lie down on the couch. Areas of the patient's body that will be exposed to a special sensor are treated with a hypoallergenic gel. The BSA ultrasound specialist examines the image on the monitor screen, measures the blood flow velocity in all vessels to be examined, as well as the size of such vessels. Atherosclerotic plaques are also measured, if they exist, since such data will later help the doctor determine how affected a particular vessel is and how it affects the blood circulation of the brain. During the study, various tests are also possible, such as taking a deep breath or holding your breath.
The duration of the procedure is approximately 30 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, a specialist draws a conclusion, which, as a rule, is given to the patient.
Informativeness of the conclusion of the ultrasound scan of the BCA
The doctor decrypts the results of duplex scanning by comparing the obtained patient indicators with those of age and anatomical standards. The rate of blood flow may depend on the gender and age of the patient. In addition, the specialist assesses such indicators as differences in blood flow rates on the right and left, vascular wall thickness, vascular lumen width, presence or absence of stenosis and atherosclerotic plaques, pathological tortuosity of some arteries and much more. Norm ultrasound BTSA interests many.
The first sign of atherosclerosis is an increase in the density and thickness of the intima-media complex (KIM). At the wall of any vessel there are three layers. Intima is considered to be the inner lining of the endothelium, which is in direct contact with the bloodstream. It is created by collagen fibers, an elastic membrane. Thickness - 1/10 of media thickness.
Media is the medium and thickest sheath, which consists of multiple layers of smooth muscle cells and elastic membranes. All arteries have an elastic membrane outside. Adventitia is the outer shell of the vessel, in its structure - chaotically located elastic and collagen fibers, as well as the smallest blood vessels.
In the study of the BCA, the inner and middle shell is clearly visible, and the outer shell merges with the tissues. As a rule, if there is atherosclerosis, then the following changes occur in the CMM:
- plots with uncharacteristic echo structure (as a rule, increased echogenicity);
- there is no obvious differentiation into layers or the emergence of new layers, which have different echogenicity;
- zones with thickening of the wall.
The permissible rate of carotid artery IMC is 1.1 mm. If it increases by more than 1.3–1.5 mm, then the presence of cholesterol plaque and, respectively, atherosclerosis is diagnosed.
Ultrasound examination of the BCA (which is now understandable) is the most accurate and effective research method, therefore the conclusion on it is 100% accurate, which allows you to immediately begin treatment of cerebral vascular diseases.