Cervical caries: causes, prevention, treatment
Any dentist will confirm that caries today is one of the most common diagnoses in dentistry. The tooth is destroyed due to damage to hard tissue. Cervical caries occurs for a number of reasons, but the formation of plaque is considered the main one. Each person has an individual tooth resistance to damage. Caries can appear due to poor oral hygiene, the presence of infectious diseases, lack of vitamins and beneficial components in the body and other factors.
How to determine the disease?
The danger is that at first the disease does not manifest itself. Symptoms are almost completely absent, so the person does not take any measures. Sometimes you can notice small yellowish specks that indicate changes occurring with enamel and hard tissue.
Why caries is formed?
During the meal, plaque appears on the teeth.It consists mainly of carbohydrates, contains particles of food. If you do not clear the plaque within 72 hours, it will harden and remove it from the enamel will not be easy. Those bacteria that live in it, destroy the tooth, as they contribute to the release of acid.
Often, cervical caries affects interdental spaces, since there remain pieces of food that are not always cleaned in time. Due to improper hygiene, the disease progresses, but it is quite difficult to notice this in the first stages. But in the retirement age, it is this disease that can cause tooth decay. Therefore, the issue of oral hygiene must be approached responsibly.
If several teeth are damaged at the same time, the reason may be in the wrong metabolism. In this case it is worth asking for help not only to the dentist, but also to the endocrinologist.
So why is the cervical caries formed? The reasons for dentists are as follows:
- Geographical. In different regions there is a different content of minerals and other substances in the water. There is a proven link between the amount of fluoride and caries, so people in some regions suffer from this disease more often than others.
- Age. The likelihood of such a phenomenon begins to increase by 11 years, and decreases only after 40 years. But even the parents of a two-year-old child may experience such a disease as cervical caries of the front teeth.
- Professional. People who work in hazardous industries are much more likely to become patients of dental clinics. Industrialization is not the best effect on the condition of the teeth, so you need to care for them with a vengeance.
- Sexual. Experts claim that women are much more affected by this disease. This is due to the fact that pregnancy and baby feeding increase the risk of enamel destruction. In addition, girls consume much more carbohydrates.
- Food. Improper diet, junk food, sweets, lack of vitamins and beneficial elements provoke cervical caries. Therefore, it is necessary to give preference to healthy foods and limit the consumption of sugar and starch.
Types of disease
Depending on the degree of damage to the tooth and the location of pain, these types of caries are distinguished:
- Deep. This stage is considered the hardest, since not only the surface, but also the layers of dentin are destroyed.This type, regardless of whether the disease is acute or chronic, may occur a second time if treatment was incorrectly performed or cleavage occurred.
- The sharpest. It is characterized by multiple damage to the tooth.
- Acute. The process of destruction in this form is not fast, but the patient notices deterioration.
- Chronic. It occurs in those people who have a predisposition to this disease.
Cervical caries, regardless of the type and form, has certain symptoms:
- Darkening of the enamel in the neck of the tooth.
- Creation of a chalky spot.
- Strong sensitivity of teeth to the slightest irritation: cold, heat or mechanical impact.
- The appearance of a carious cavity.
Why are front teeth being destroyed?
This problem is not only medical, but also aesthetic. When a doctor diagnoses cervical caries, the reasons may be different:
- Violation of microflora.
- Hereditary factor.
- Insufficient oral hygiene.
It is extremely important to identify caries in the early stages in order to prevent complete destruction of the tooth.A qualified specialist, using modern methods of diagnosis, will be able to do this at the beginning of the disease, so there is no need to wait for obvious symptoms. Demineralization course will help stop the process of destruction and reduce the sensitivity of teeth.
The dentist may suggest the patient to rinse the mouth with a special composition with a dye. It does not penetrate healthy teeth, but remains in the damaged areas, clearly demonstrating the problem.
How to treat cervical caries in the stain stage?
Treatment of cervical caries depends on the severity of the disease. If the enamel is still dense, and the surface is not damaged, it is enough to saturate it with special preparations. The etching gel is applied to the problem area and discolorates the pigments. If the spot brightens, then further treatment of the cervical caries will consist in applying a compound that will saturate the enamel with calcium. This will increase its strength and reduce vulnerability.
In the case when the stain is not discolored, this may indicate that the deeper layers are affected. Then the therapy will be very long and expensive.The damaged area must be polished and saturated with a special preparation.
Treatment of subsequent stages of the disease
If dentin has suffered, it is necessary to remove all tissue and restore the tooth with a filling agent. The cost of this procedure depends on the degree of complexity of the disease, the status of the clinic and the quality of materials. If not launched cervical caries, the price can vary from 1 600 to 4 000 rubles. When tooth canals are damaged, this figure increases significantly.
The difficulty of treatment lies in the fact that the gum is located in the immediate vicinity of the damaged area. It is difficult to provide a dry space, so expensive materials and equipment are used. Excessive moisture will lead to the destruction and loss of seals. Therefore, it is important to accurately recreate the contour of the tooth and high-quality polish the filling. If it protrudes above the surface, secondary caries can form under it.
If the disease is very advanced, the treatment will be carried out by surgery. First, the tooth will be processed, will remove the stone and plaque. Caries is prepared using modern methods or conventional drill.The adhesive makes it possible to isolate a tooth from saliva. The defect is filled with a filling material, and its shape returns to the tooth. Sometimes it takes a little to move the gum.
What is the wedge effect?
This is a fairly well-known phenomenon in dentistry, which has a non-carious nature. Cervical caries and wedge-shaped defect are outwardly slightly similar and are located in the same place. But the differences are still there: the V-shaped groove does not darken and does not cause changes in the structure of the enamel. The surface does not become loose and rough, as with caries.
People over thirty years old are most susceptible to such a disease as cervical caries. Prevention must be carried out in order not to trigger the problem. Teeth should be cleaned thoroughly, including the neck area, twice a day. At least once a year you need to visit the dentist, so that he assesses the condition of the oral cavity, because at the beginning of the disease it is very difficult to identify it yourself. If the first signs are detected on time, there is an opportunity to do without demineralization.
Hygiene, proper nutrition and regular visits to the dentist will significantly reduce the likelihood of cervical caries.