Currant pruning. Pruning currant bushes in autumn
Without timely pruning, the currant bush will not be able to produce a full-fledged harvest, since the bulk of the berries are tied up at last year’s growth. Dried and old branches are always necessary to cut off, to replace them with new shoots.
The benefits of trimming
Thanks to this procedure, the yield increases several times already in the first year. Due to this artificial rejuvenation, the bush can bear fruit for several years longer than usual. The whole secret is that old growths that hinder the development of young shoots are removed to the ground. Experienced gardeners say that the correct pruning of currants after harvesting allows the plant to bloom for more than 20 years.Removing dried branches allows new shoots to get the required amount of sunlight. For this reason, the yield increases, and the berries themselves ripen large and rich in vitamins. Thanks to photosynthesis, the flow of substances vital for it is increasing in the plant.In other words, pruning currants is needed so that nutritional components can only come into the berries and new shoots, and not into old growths.
The benefits of this procedure are also noticeable when harvesting, because the bush is not thickened with dry branches. As for pruning different varieties of berries, it is almost no different. The difference is that in the red currant, even old growths remain fruitful.
Pruning bushes in autumn
Most gardeners recommend cutting out excess branches at this time of year. Not without reason the very first pruning of currants is carried out just in the fall, when the seedlings are transferred to the ground, having previously got rid of all the shoots and leaves, except the lowest growing buds. In this case, it is important that all the branches are delayed, and the roots begin to function fully before the onset of frost.
In all the following years pruning currants after harvest should be carried out before the first cold weather. Processing of the bushes can begin in the fall, and more details completed in the spring. It is important to pay attention to the following nuances:
- young growths that thicken the bush strongly, be sure to thin out;
- old branches that do not give a crop for several years in a row should be deleted;
- it is necessary to identify and shred to the ground diseased shoots.
The timely pruning of currants in the fall will allow the plant with the onset of the first spring rains not to waste juice and strength on the development of old branches. Before the onset of frost, the soil under the bushes can be fertilized with previously cut leaves. The ideal time for cutting off excess growth is November, when the currant is not in a state of activity.
Pruning bushes in spring
The optimum period for the full formation of the plant is spring. Pruning at this time of year should be carried out before the buds bloom, and this happens in currants rather early. That is why experts in horticultural affairs advise starting this procedure in the autumn, and completing it in the spring.If the buds have already begun to appear, then the formation of the bush can be forgotten, since at this time juice is produced in the stems. If you start cutting out excess gains, the plant will expire badly, and this is very harmful for the future harvest. On the other hand, pruning currants at too early a time does not entail anything good either.Therefore, it is best to get rid of the infertile branches immediately after warming.
It is important to know that during the first few years, all growths should be removed, except for the 3-5 strongest ones. The most promising shoots are those located at the root of the plant, and not separated from the trunks. Hemp from cut branches should not be more than 3 centimeters, otherwise they will again grow. It is recommended that all places of removal of gains be treated with a special agent so that they “heal” faster.
How to form black currant bushes
This procedure requires a lot of patience and attention. To form a bush in late autumn, strongly protruding branches should be cut off, leaving 2 buds strong and 1 weak buds of the weak ones. If you leave long growths, then in the spring on them will appear an uncountable number of buds, but the berries on them will grow small and painful.
Pruning currants should continue until only fruitful shoots remain on the bush, otherwise one should not wait for a good harvest. Young branches appear very quickly, so the removal procedure must be done in a timely manner.If in the autumn period the formation of a bush cannot be completed, then it is better to finish it in early spring.
Mineral substances and water practically do not move along the old branches, that is why they grow so slowly and do not give a proper harvest, and even prevent young shoots from fully developing. If the bush is not cut off for several years, then in the end it will wither. Full crown formation will be completed only in the fifth year after proper care of the plant.
Black currant pruning
After the final formation of the bush, you can resort to the procedure of annual removal of excess sprouts. In fact, it is very simple: only those branches that are more than 5 years old are cut. This procedure is done in early spring, until the buds begin to mature. On the other hand, many gardeners recommend transferring the haircut of non-fertile branches to a later period. Pruning black currants in the fall allows the plant to better endure the harsh winter.
Regardless of the season, remove weak and dried branches to the level of the soil. At this stage it is important not to miss the infection of the plant. If it has settled glass or kidney mites, then it must be immediately dug together with the ground, before the pests have passed to other bushes.Also, the tops of increments are subjected to pruning, but only if they were frozen after the winter or the aphid started up in them. Long branches that are longer than 40 centimeters should be shortened.
How to form a bush of red currant
Correct processing of the crown of this variety consists in pruning of old branches, which are more than 7 years old. In the case of red and white currants last year's shoots are not even shortened. There are practically no infertile young gains in this variety, therefore, when forming a bush, only sick and broken branches should be eliminated.
Old shoots up to 7 years old can be shortened to the nearest fruitful branching. This stimulates the growth of strong buds and increases the life span of the plant. The formed bush as a result should not have more than 25 branches. The procedure itself is repeated for 7-8 years.
Red currant pruning
In order for the berries in subsequent years to enjoy their size and taste, it is necessary for many years to form the basis of the plant. As soon as the crown receives an optimal look and is able to bear fruit regularly, you can proceed to the standard annual shearing.
Red currant pruning is done either in late autumn or in early spring. Also, it will not be superfluous to carry out the so-called sanitary shearing in the summer, when painful shoots are subjected to removal.The red and white currant branches, prone to cutting, much smaller than the black. Even the driest growths can bear fruit for 7-8 years. In addition, the distribution of berries in these varieties is uniform, so the bushes rarely need annual pruning. The main thing when growing currants is to prevent the thickening of the crown and in time to get rid of diseased shoots.
Many amateur gardeners are faced with the problems of reducing yields, when every year there are fewer berries. And let pruning currant bushes does not require special knowledge, sometimes it will not be superfluous to ask for help from specialists.
In any union of gardeners and in the respective companies there are professionals who can easily demonstrate in practice their skills in shaping and pruning currant bushes. In addition, the services of such specialists include regular care of plants, their fertilizer, transplantation and other works that can give the landlord a lot of cares.
Recommendations for currant pruning
1.A large proportion of the crop is formed on the shoots that are not more than 2 years old.
2. Pruning currants in the summer is allowed only in the case of infection of individual branches of the plant.
3. Old growths are easy to distinguish from young ones, as they have a darker color.
4. When infecting the tops of the stems, they should be cut only before the first strong shoots.
5. If the branch was broken, then it will no longer be fruitful, and it should be removed, leaving a stump of 3 centimeters.