First medical aid for poisoning: it is important to correctly prioritize
By poisoning physicians mean getting intothe human body is harmful to health (and sometimes for life) substance - poison. It can penetrate the respiratory tract, be swallowed, absorbed through the skin, go directly into the blood with injections. In everyday life, poisoning involves the ingress of toxins with substandard foods, as well as the ingestion of inedible liquids (household chemicals or cosmetics / perfumes, acids, alkalis, heavy metal salts). Therefore, the first medical assistance for poisoning will be considered when the latter situations occur.
- The first thing to do is to stopthe entry of poison into the body. It means that you need to stop using the substance with food or drink, wash the poison off the skin, take the person out of the room in which the toxic product was sprayed.
- Emergency treatment for poisoning isextract as much poison from the body as possible until it absorbed into the blood. This is the most important point with such lesions, which is based on what substance and how it got to the person.
a) If the poisoning is of poor qualityfood, the obligatory measure is gastric lavage. It is not necessary to add manganese to the water in this case, and simple water is enough - not warm, but cool (so that it is not absorbed, but comes out with a toxin). The main thing is that the substance should be washed as best as possible: to drink a liter of water - to press on the root of the tongue, provoking vomiting,and so several times. Also, the first medical aid for poisoning consists in staging an enema (cool water). It is here that you can add sorbent (best of all, such drugs as Smecta, Atoxil, White Coal, but you can also use Activated Carbon powdered into powder).
b) If the lesion has occurred by inhalationaerosol, rinse the stomach is meaningless. In this case, breathing in fresh air will help as the first medical aid for poisoning. In the future, a person may need to inhale the oxygen mixture, sometimes even through an artificial ventilation unit.
c) If a person has swallowed acid or alkali,it is not allowed to wash the stomach, causing vomiting: the reverse current of the damaging substance can damage or cause more harm to the esophagus, stomach, pharynx, up to the formation of perforations in these organs.
In this case, you can drink astringents andCoating agents: 0.5% tannin solution, a mixture of starch or flour (70 grams per liter of water) or proteins of raw chicken eggs (less preferably, since it can be infected with salmonella). If there are no such substances, drink the sorbent: if there is only "Activated charcoal", then 10 tablets of this drug must be crushed into powder and drunk with a glass-two cool water.
Then take a laxative (at least sunflower oil). The setting of an enema in this case is also justified.
3. The toxin absorbed into the blood must be rendered harmless. To do this, you need to call an ambulance and go to the hospital, where the antidotes are - substances that react with the poison (this is mainly drugs), form non-toxic compounds for the body, which are then excreted in urine, feces and breathing (depending on from the type of poison).
4. The first medical treatment for poisoning is also to ensure and maintain vital functions. This is carrying out resuscitation: indirect cardiac massage, breathing from the mouth into the nose (preferably) or from the mouth to the mouth. If as a result of poisoning there is a clinical death (that is, there is no heartbeat), breathing has stopped, and also if a person is concerned about chest pain, gastric lavage and enema are done after care. If the heart hurts, you need to take a drop of "Corvalol" or "Valocordin" or a tablet of "Validol".
Loss of consciousness is not a contraindication for carrying out lavage of the stomach and intestines.
5. A person should drink a sufficient amount of liquid: in small fractions, in small sips. Calculation is as follows: 40 ml / kg of weight plus the volume of the liquid that was lost with vomiting and diarrhea.
When is it necessary to call an ambulance?
- If the poisoning was caused by acid, alkali or other toxic compound (not overdue food).
- If the victim is a child or an elderly person.
- If there was a violation of consciousness (evenshort-term), pain behind the sternum. In case you were able to properly carry out resuscitation measures, you need to call not just an ambulance, but an intensive care team.