Fraud is what? Types, schemes, examples of fraud. Responsibility for fraud
Fraud is the seizure of another's propertyby deception. In fact, this is the same theft. The only difference is that it is possible to steal money or the object of value thanks to the trustfulness of the victim. In modern society, fraud has become widespread. Attackers find new ways and methods of deception to take over another's good. To avoid trouble, it is worth knowing the main types of fraud.
Street games and express lotteries
People have always sought to enrich themselves quickly. Attackers have used this desire since ancient times. The most ancient way of cheating is playing a thimble. The rules are quite simple. On the table are three thimble, under one of them is a ball. If the player guesses exactly where he is hidden, he can get a win. And to play, you must first deposit a certain amount. The essence of fraud is that guessing under what thimble is the ball is almost impossible. Initially, an attacker can draw a person into the game, that is, give him a win. Deceived pays for several new attempts to double the amount of winnings. But to return money, alas, it is not possible.
Playing a thimble is nothing short of agilityhands of an attacker. The ball, which is under the thimble, is made of a plastic material. It is easily compressed and fits in the fist. It remains only to distract a person so that he does not notice this deft maneuver.
Express lottery works on the same principle. Initially, a person buys a ticket and gets a small win. There is excitement. The problem is that the drums and lottery tickets are fake. Further, no one else can win. Every attacker should be a good psychologist. It is only necessary to choose the right words for the "victim" to believe in the possibility of a big win. In fact, this is a real crime. Fraud in all sizes is prosecuted by law.
Most of the scams on the street are turned by the groupof people. One can "work" with a thimble or a lottery, another will entice the people. It is possible that in the crowd there will be a man who manages to win time after time. Most likely, it is an accessory of a criminal group.
Traditional fraud with cards. As soon as gambling appeared, intruders began to invent new ways of capturing other people's property and money. There is even a thievish profession. A person who deceives people with cards is called a sharper. He not only perfectly plays cards and knows a lot of manipulations, but he is also an excellent psychologist, he can distract a person with a gesture or facial expressions. Most often, card cheaters do not work alone. In prisons, whole schools and corporations are organized to train such specialists. By the way, the earnings fall not in the pocket of the criminal, but is divided equally among the members of the group.
Card games are a whole world with their ownrules and language. In fact, the cards themselves are not an element of crime. Despite the fact that gambling is banned in many cities and countries, maps perfectly develop logical thinking. Signs of fraud play gains only when one of the participants is inflicted material or moral damage. The desire to take risks is the biggest magnet that attracts people to card games. After all, many play for money or for other material values. Gambling, including card games, is often addictive. Get rid of that oh, how difficult. Alas, this is far from being successful ...
Card games today are illegal. Despite this, people continue to fall on the hook of scammers. There are whole institutions where they come to "try their luck." Most often these are cellars or other premises hidden from the eyes of the police. Such fraud in Moscow or other large cities is considered quite common. Credulous citizens often come across at train stations, clothing markets and other places of large crowds. Modern sharers are keeping pace with technology. To play card games, it is not necessary to go to the casino: you can have fun and at the computer in real time.
Many are eager to know their future. Is it worth investing in a business? Is it dangerous to perform a surgical operation? When will you be able to get married? Credulous citizens are ready to give any money to get answers to exciting questions. Divination is an even more ancient form of "overtaking" than card games. Doubt that there are really gifted people, it's not worth it. But most of those who propose to know the future are the most common criminals. You can give various examples of fraud, as a result of which the victims remained literally penniless in their pockets, moreover, people sold apartments and cars to pay a fortune-teller.
Today there are a huge number of ways"predict the fate of". Many propose to give credit on the coffee grounds, some masters use maps in their work. Pretty common, though not as much as before, palmistry. But, despite such a wide range of methods, all these options unite one. Whatever the method of divination, before you know the future, you need to make a deposit. There is a fraud in a large amount, when a visitor to a magical salon is required to make an advance payment of, say, 500 dollars ... And many agree that they do not bother to think, but is the price of a sorcerer's services too high?
In most cases, women are engaged in fortune-telling. Magical salon has a special attribute. These are various candles, mirrors and amulets. The fortuneteller himself can have black hair and catchy make-up. On the head most often there is a scarf. All this, of course, makes an impression on a trusting client. A couple of characteristics, a casually dropped comment of the seer, somewhat to nothing, seemingly non-binding questions, and all - the victim on the hook ... The problem is that the responsibility for fraud of such a plan does not always come. Fortune-teller can formalize their activities. In this case, there can not be any claims from the state. After all, people decide to take their money to the magic salon. And who can guarantee that the words of the fortune-teller about the future are true?
Such types of fraud are familiar with long-standingyears. As the most striking example, we can mention the notorious "MMM" community. People were offered to buy coupons for a certain amount. They had to be cut out according to the scheme. Those who brought finished products were paid a lot of times more than the amount that was paid in the beginning.
With the development of information technology, financialthe pyramids leaked to the Web. There are different types of fraud, but the essence of them is the same. The financial structure exists for depositors' money. Interest is paid at the expense of attracting new customers. It turns out that the primary investors can not bad earn. But this structure has no financial confirmation. It is built from the air. Sooner or later, the financial pyramid collapses. Organizers disappear with all the money of depositors. And this is observed when the influx of new customers is suspended.
The financial pyramid can be excellenttool of earnings. Perfectly feel those who invest money at the very beginning and manage to return the money spent (with interest) even before the collapse of the structure. It's a risky business. Before you earn this way, it is worth studying the schemes of fraud. You need to be prepared for the fact that you can not get the money back.
Once access to the World Wide Web was receivedall comers, there are new examples of fraud. Many people began to transfer money to electronic accounts. Letters on magical wallets began to come to the mailboxes. The bottom line is to send a certain amount of money to an electronic account, and in a few days it will double. Luring gullible people could be easily accomplished by attackers. Initially, many sent a small amount of money to such a purse. Several times the income was really obtained. After the deceived had already transferred a large amount, all information about the purse disappeared.
News about magical wallets fast enoughspread in social networks. No one trusted the letters. Then the attackers had to develop new schemes of fraud. In electronic letters they offered to deceive the magic wallet. In most cases, the income could be obtained if you transfer a small amount of money to an attacker. In fact, this is the same divorce. Trusted citizens were given a purse number and warned that it was fraudulent. Scammers can be "punished" if you repeatedly send money in small amounts. The problem is that the finances did not return after the initial transfer.
Highly paid work at home
There are people who for a number of reasons can notget a normal job. These can be mums in the decree or citizens with disabilities. They are happy with any employment at home. And if they offer a high enough payment for it, this is a huge plus. This is the basis for numerous methods of fraud. People are offered to type texts at home, collect pens, and glue envelopes. But before you start work, you must make a certain amount of money. Attackers explain this maneuver quite simply. This is payment for raw materials. And what if a person receives material for work, but does not want to fulfill his duties? Many consider this justification just and often get hooked.
There are also ways of fraud thatdo not require any initial fee. People are offered work at home, which is associated with professional skills. Often, this kind of deception is associated with copywriting. A man is offered a highly paid job to write articles. But in order to start cooperation, it is necessary to send a test text, which, allegedly, will be paid at a lower rate. After the copywriter performs the test task, communication with the employer ceases. A swindler can profitably sell an article that went absolutely free, on one of the exchanges.
Goods at competitive prices in online stores
Online shopping is a great way to save money. Things are most often stored in warehouses. This means that the seller does not need to overpay for the sales area. Therefore, the goods are offered at below-market prices. But in this sphere scammers have found their niche. They create a colorful website, download information about products that do not exist. At the same time, the price is the lowest. The only problem is that the purchase can not be sent to the buyer by cash on delivery. You can buy the item only after full prepayment. A person contributes money to an electronic account, but does not receive his purchase. Such online stores often last no more than a month. This is a fraud in a large amount. After all for a certain period of time, thanks to a good site and colorful advertising, you can deceive many "buyers". Preliminary costs quickly pay off.
In order not to be deceived by committingonline shopping, it is worth paying attention to some of the nuances. First of all, this is the method of payment and delivery. If you are offered to purchase goods by cash, you should take this opportunity. A good online store always has reviews about its activities. If for several months of work such are not present in the network, it is worthwhile to think about.
Mobile communication has become widespreadalready more than ten years ago. In this area, the attackers also found many ways to enrich themselves. There is a huge number of paid numbers, which are not charged at all as the mobile operator describes. A person can receive an SMS message about a big win. And to find out the detailed information, you need to call back to the specified number. At the same time, the "lucky" is kept on the line for a long time. Learn information about the win and can not. And after the call is interrupted, it turns out that all the money has disappeared from the account.
Phone fraud is enough to identifyjust. The message will include only the minimum information about the winnings and the number for reference. If the stock actually exists and is conducted by the mobile operator, the terms and conditions for obtaining the win will be indicated. It is impossible to become a participant in such an action without prior registration.
A message may be sent to the phone asking forassistance. The person calls back and thus gets on the hook of the attacker. Money from the mobile account disappears. This is also fraud. The amount withdrawn from the account may be small. However, in any case, it makes sense to apply to law enforcement.
As the victim is not a physical,but a legal entity. Many companies conclude contracts for life, property and real estate insurance. But! The likelihood that an accident will be regarded as an insurance, and the company will have to pay a certain amount to an individual, is negligible.
True, there is also a diametrically opposedoption, when the cybercriminals try to deceive the agency itself. The composition of fraud is that the "victim" artificially creates an insurance event. If the contract concerns the car, it is only necessary to cause a small damage to the vehicle. The company pays compensation. And in order to repair the car, you need a much smaller amount.
Insurance fraud today isis quite common. Simple gullible people also often face deception. Fans of easy money can act as insurance agents. Criminals go to their homes and offices, offering their services. What is at issue, the reader, probably already guessed. People are offered to insure life or property. Monthly payment will be minimal. The more clients trust an insurance agent, the larger the amount of fraud. But even on small amounts, an attacker can earn good money.
Fraud in the sphere of crediting
Large sums of money are always attracted to intruders. Therefore, fraud in lending in recent years is gaining huge proportions. As intruders most often act as individuals who enter into a contract with a financial institution. Even at the stage of signing all the documents, they know that the loan obligations will not be fulfilled. The calculation is quite simple. The fraudster is sure that, after issuing a small amount, the bank about the borrower will soon forget. At the conclusion of the transaction, the attacker indicates incorrect contact information. The likelihood that the offender will be tracked down is significantly reduced.
Fraud in the sphere of credit can beIt is also related to documents confirming the identity of the borrower. It is not uncommon for a person, after losing a passport, to find out that a large loan has been issued for his name. To avoid such situations, the security services of financial institutions began to make special demands for the conclusion of contracts. To take a loan, it is not enough to provide a passport and a certificate of income. The borrower is photographed and asked to indicate a few fixed telephone numbers for communication. The decision to grant a loan on an especially large scale can be made within a few days.
How to operate black realtors
Often, credit fraudis associated with the acquisition of real estate or road transport. Many people do not understand the nuances of making deals, so they use the help of realtors. The specialist takes care of finding the right property, as well as preparing the documents. The client communicates with the financial institution through an intermediary. A realtor can inform the borrower that the bank has refused to issue a loan. In fact, the financial institution has concluded a deal. The mediator disappears along with the "earned" money. And the borrower only after a while learns that the loan was still issued, and the debt has already grown at times.
Bank fraud is widespreadless than the crimes associated with various credit communities. These are organizations that offer to deposit money on a deposit or arrange a loan on favorable terms. For a while such firms are working normally. Then the problems begin. Return money on the deposit is not always possible, and interest on the loan significantly increased.
Fraud in the bank related to depositdeposits, is even rarer. Most large financial institutions are participants of the State Deposit Guarantee Fund. This means that the deposit will be repaid in full, even if the bank goes bankrupt. But do not trust your savings to a financial institution that exists on the market for less than three years. Great experience and positive feedback will be an additional guarantee that the funds will not melt away, like smoke.
Responsibility for fraud
Any actions that are expected as a result ofpossession of another's property, are pursued by the law. Fraud is a criminal offense. It is regulated by Article 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Regardless of whether a major fraud has been committed, or if the offender has managed to seize a small amount, they will have to answer for their actions. How? Let's talk about this in more detail.
According to the law, fraud istaking possession of another's property or obtaining rights to it by deception. The offender, through cunning actions, misleads a person. As a result, the victim gives his property voluntarily. In the course most often there are psychological techniques. Later, a person realizes that this is fraud. Where to go at the same time - not everyone knows. After all, it is difficult to admit that the crime was based on its own stupidity and credulity. And what if law enforcement officers do not want to accept the application and just laugh?
Fraud is a serious problem thatacquires today a huge scale. Victims should not be afraid to claim their rights. The crime will necessarily be solved if you seek help immediately. The fight against fraud is the prerogative of a special police department. Depending on the extent of the damage, the offender may be sentenced to 10 years imprisonment.
And it is not so important how much the victim suffered: lost a couple of hundred rubles or it was a major embezzlement. Fraud must be punished! Article 159 provides for 4 degrees of seriousness of the crime. For the first two, deprivation of liberty is provided only if the offender can not compensate for the damage. The most serious is fraudulent third and fourth degree. Even the return of money or property to the victim is not a guarantee that deprivation of liberty will be avoided.