Gatsania flower: photo, description, growing from seed, planting and care in open ground
Gatsania - a bright and beautiful flower, shaped like a chamomile, has a wide variety of colors: white, pink, orange and red shades. How to grow it from seeds, care for and propagate, how long the plant can bloom - it will be interesting to know to all gardeners.
In the genus gazanii, or gazania, belonging to the Astrav family, there are both annual and perennial low-growing plants with a short stem. Inflorescence - a single basket-shaped, located on an elongated peduncle, has bright colors. The leaves are gathered in a narrow rosette, the color is olive-green or with a gray tint, the shape is pinnate or elongate-lanceolate, on the lower side there is a white-silver fluff to preserve moisture and protect against cold.
All types of gazania have good drought-resistant abilities, like light and heat, therefore they prefer open, sunlit beds. German gardeners gave the name of the flower "noonday gold" due to the fact that their disclosure always occurs during the day in sunny weather.
The plant with a height of 25-30 cm is decorated with a bright flower with a diameter of 5-9 cm, with dark inclusions clearly visible at the base of the petals, and contrasting thick stripes run along the length. Homeland flower gatsanii - South Africa, Cape Province, where it grows as a perennial. The genus includes about 40 species.
Gatsania: growing from seed
The gazania is characterized by a long time period from sowing seeds to the beginning of flowering (80-100 days). That is why the seedlings need to start to engage as early as possible in order to have time to admire the colorful multi-colored flowerbeds. Some gardeners begin to do this at the end of February and early March, others closer to April. Flowers obtained from seedlings begin to bloom much earlier than those sown in open ground, since this can only be done in mid-May.
Small seeds are sown shallowly (1 cm) in a staggered manner with a distance of 3-4 cm, covered with earth from above and poured with water in a small amount, preferably with a spray bottle.From above the box should be covered with a film or glass, then put in a well-sanctified place, maintaining the temperature of at least +18 ° C.
Growing from the seeds of gatsanii requires painstaking care of crops: periodic ventilation with the removal of water droplets on the glass. After the emergence after 2 weeks of young shoots with the first leaf, the saplings must be dived into separate pots, trying not to damage the roots. Optimal soil for young shoots: loose peat mixture.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, it must be hardened, exposing to a cooler (temperature +12 - + 15 ° C) and a place protected from the wind for several hours daily. For this purpose, a closed balcony or loggia, a veranda in a private house is optimal. Some flower growers plant sprouts in April in cold greenhouses.
Transplantation into the soil is carried out using a scoop, which first need to make a deep hole, and then plant a seedling along with a clod of earth and roots. The distance between plants is 20-30 cm.
Planting seedlings, soil
Hazania sprouts are best placed on a flower bed with rich, well-drained soil or loose soil with gravel content with moderate humidity.It is also recommended to prepare the soil from a mixture of leaf earth, sand, humus, peat and sod. The plant does not like heavy clay soils that are poorly breathable and moisture, which is why in rainy weather flowers feel oppressed.
Planting of seedlings is done in the middle of May, with each flower being planted together with a lump of earth, trying not to damage the roots, or using peat pots.
Gatsania: care and watering
The plant is not demanding, tolerates heat and dry days, thanks to the taproot, care for him is quite simple. The only requirement is to prevent overdrying of the soil, resulting in the possibility of chopping flowers or the absence of inflorescences.
Basic rules for caring for gatsanii:
- often loosen the top layer of soil;
- watering - moderate or even scanty;
- after each procedure should be mulch the soil;
- remove surrounding weeds, especially wheat grass and grasses;
- to collect all faded buds to stimulate the establishment of new ones.
Top dressing and wintering
The gazania flower is periodically required to be fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, which well stimulates harmonious growth and abundant flowering.The frequency of feeding depends on the soil: for plants growing on fertile soil - once in 1-1.5 months, for the poorer - every 2-4 weeks.
The plant tolerates frosts well, so many gardeners make transplantation of flowering plantings in pots in the fall and place them on a glazed balcony. It is only necessary to watch that the temperature there does not fall below +10 ° C. When transplanting should be careful with the root system, trying not to damage it. Watering gatsanii in winter is warm water separated for several days. When spring comes, the plant can be planted back in a flower garden or in a flower bed, which will allow it to be used as a perennial. However, be sure to shorten the shoots by half.
Varieties and varieties
The most common types of annual flowers gazanii:
- Hybrid, growing low bush, which has oblong leaves, collected in the rosette. The size of bright colors in this type is 7-9 cm, inside each there are dark spots in the form of oval patterns. Flowering takes place from the end of June to frosts, 6–9 inflorescences simultaneously bloom, each flowering lasts up to 20 days.Thus, each plant blooms for 90-100 days.
- Long-rifle gatsania is distinguished by creeping stems with narrow leaves, yellow flowers with a white border and a dark circle in the middle have a diameter of about 7 cm, are placed on high peduncles. Flowering time lasts from August until frost, the flowers are closed every evening. After the dried buds are removed, new ones appear almost immediately. During cloudy weather, the plant does not reveal flowers.
Selection and variety series
With the active work of breeders, many interesting varieties of garden gatsania were bred, the most popular of them are:
- The Daybreak series is represented by bright yellow, golden-tangerine and burning orange shades, as well as red-brown.
- Kiss varieties are distinguished by stunted plants up to 25 cm high, inflorescences have diameter up to 10 cm
- Chansonette - differs in two-color inflorescences of the most different shades;
- The Talent series is one of the new, but popular among flower growers, the height of plants is up to 20 cm, a characteristic feature: silvery leaves of olive color, which perfectly contrast with flowers, does not close at night.
- Sundance varieties - have large flowers, coloring 2-color (bright yellow edges and burgundy stripe along the entire length of the petal).
- Harlequin - differs in a large bush, the color of flowers is bright red-orange with a central dark-red stripe.
Seed collection and propagation by cutting
To obtain seeds leave the bud, which matures within 2 months. Then he must have time to remove. You can store seeds in a paper bag or bag in a cool place, germination is stored for 2 years.
Some varieties of flower gatsanii, such as terry, can be propagated only by vegetative means. Propagation by grafting is carried out in July, for which the side shoot of 10 cm in size is cut, the lower leaves are removed, the cut is treated with a root. They select a container with a diameter of at least 10 cm, the soil is covered with loose and moist soil. After planting, the cutting is placed in a light, but shaded place, protected from drafts, temperatures up to +18 ° С. Watering is necessary regularly, well ventilated. The root system is formed within 1-1.5 months. The resulting bushes can be planted in the spring in the open ground.
What if the gatsania does not bloom?
After planting the seedlings in open ground, gatsania, as a rule, begins to bloom almost immediately, usually in the second half of June and early July.If this does not happen, then the reasons may be as follows:
- the lack of lighting that can happen because of the shadow of nearby trees;
- an excess of watering, which the plant does not tolerate, therefore, can not only refuse to flower, but also perish;
- Late planting of gatsaniya in the soil due to insufficient time of growing seedlings from seeds, this period should be at least 80 days.
Understanding the reasons for failure, any florist will be able to take into account his mistakes and correct the cultivation of seedlings from seeds or their planting for the next year.
Diseases and pests
The most common disease of the gatsania is gray rot, caused by excessive watering or prolonged rains, due to which the stem and leaves rot. It is manifested by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. For treatment you need to process the flowers Bordeaux liquid or special preparations.
In order to prevent the plant, it is recommended to treat fungicides designed to fight the fungus, avoid over-wetting the soil, do not plant flowers too close and avoid watering the leaves when watering.All pruning activities are recommended in dry weather with a sharp knife.
Pests can cause harm to the plant: aphid, spider mite, snails, slugs. To combat them, mechanical, biological and chemical methods should be used: snails should be collected manually, and aphids can be washed with a hose under the pressure of water. To combat the snails, popular methods are widely used: salt sprinkling, dripping cans with baits (beer, compote), mulching with needles. In case of severe damage, biopreparations and systemic fungicides can be used, but they should be periodically changed to avoid addiction.
The use of gazanii in landscape design
The above photos and description of the gatsaniya give an idea about its colors and color. Flowers are widely used for decorating flowerbeds, rockeries and mixborders. They are perfectly combined with other plants. Therefore, they are used as bright accents in front of shrubs, to decorate the space on the supporting wall, for inclusions on lawns. Looks great with blue ageratum, lobelia, daisies, ursinia and gypsophila.
The great advantage, according to reviews about the colors of amateur gardeners, is the possibility of growing plants in pots or containers on loggias and balconies. The pubescence of the back side of the leaves helps the flower to tolerate excessive gas pollution, which is felt in an urban environment. After cutting the flowers look beautiful in a bouquet along with others.