Geriatrics is ... Basics of Geriatrics
With age, people have more health problems. Statistics show that at the age of 60–74 years, the incidence increases by 2 times compared with the incidence in people belonging to young age groups. At the age of 75–89, this figure becomes even greater. The incidence is 6 times higher. From this we can conclude that the elderly and senile age is very much in need of medical care. In this regard, geriatrics is very relevant. This is a special section of medicine.
The concept of gerontology
In medicine, there are 2 terms - gerontology and geriatrics. The first of them is a complex natural science that studies the aging process, examines its biological, social, psychological, medical aspects. In gerontology, there are several sections:
- Biological aging. This field of science studies the processes occurring in the body in connection with its aging.
- Social gerontology.This section deals with the effects of socio-cultural and social conditions on aging. He also considers the social consequences of this natural process.
- Geriatrics. This is an important section of gerontology. It includes the medical aspects of aging.
Basics of Geriatrics
From the above explanation of the term, it is clear that this section of gerontology deals with the preservation of health in old and old people. The subject of geriatrics is the study of the course of common diseases and senile pathologies, their diagnosis, treatment features and prevention.
The main tasks of geriatrics can be formulated as follows:
- study of the characteristics of various diseases in the elderly and elderly;
- study of the clinical course of ailments;
- treatment and prevention of diseases;
- identifying those opportunities through which you can affect the aging process in the human body.
In the life of a person emit late age. The World Health Organization divides it into several periods. From this classification, we can distinguish the elderly in geriatrics:
- young - up to 45 years of age;
- medium - from 45 to 59 years;
- elderly - from 60 to 74 years;
- senile - from 75 to 89 years;
- longevity - over 90 years.
Geriatrics studies age periods, starting with the elderly. It is worth noting that all these boundaries are conditional, because some people begin to age prematurely. The factors affecting its development include diseases in a chronic form, bad habits, prolonged and often repeated stress, unhealthy diet, harmful environmental factors.
Features of diseases of the elderly and senile age
The studied diseases in geriatrics have certain features:
- Mainly identified by specialists chronic forms of ailments.
- Diseases often go unnoticed. There are few signs. Sometimes, under the frequently occurring symptoms, dangerous diseases are hidden, that is, the illness occurs “under the mask”.
- In the elderly and senile age, people often find complications that have arisen against the background of the underlying disease, and there is a greater tendency to relapse.
- Polymorbidity is characteristic of ailments. This term refers to the multiplicity of pathological processes. To understand it, you can give an example.When an old person becomes aggravated by a disease, he develops a failure of one of the systems of internal organs. Because of this, the functioning of another system is disrupted. As a result, the syndrome of mutual complication develops.
In modern civilized countries, society takes care of the elderly. No exception is Russia. In 2016, in our country, the procedure for the provision of medical care in geriatrics was approved by the Ministry of Health. According to him, people can get:
- primary specialized medical care on an outpatient basis or in a day hospital;
- specialized (including high-tech) assistance in day and in regular hospital;
- palliative care on an outpatient or inpatient basis.
All necessary activities can be carried out in geriatric departments (offices) of medical institutions that provide outpatient care, in geriatric departments of medical organizations that provide care in inpatient facilities, in geriatric centers.
More on geriatric service
The Russian legislation takes the first steps in the development of care for the elderly, the concept of geriatrics is explained in various manuals. At the moment, the geriatric service in our country is still fragmentary. It is not a single system with well-established interaction between the links. Despite this, geriatrics will gradually develop. In each region, the main geriatrician and specialists will appear who will form a unified team to assist the elderly and people in old age.
What should be the geriatric service? It should be based on medical professionals - doctors, nursing and nursing staff. Psychologists can play an important role. They help to cope with the syndrome of loneliness, solve problems associated with psychological and physical violence in the family, are engaged in social and psychological counseling.
The geriatric team should include a social worker. He gives various recommendations to the patient and his family members, talks about benefits and benefits, about medications that can be obtained for free, notifies about social programs.
Features of the treatment
Older people usually have several diseases at once. It is very important to think through drug therapy in order not to harm the human body and achieve a positive result. Young people could be prescribed a comprehensive treatment of all identified ailments. With regard to people of old age is wrong. The fact is that in the human body in senile or old age all the processes are not the same as in youth. Due to the intake of various drugs, a person’s condition can only worsen.
Geriatrics is something that aims to preserve a patient’s health. That is why the main recommendation in treatment is to apply goal-oriented therapy. When making diagnoses, the doctor chooses the main problem for the patient, which reduces his quality of life. Then the specialist prescribes a suitable treatment for this disease, taking into account age.
An example of the treatment of hypertension in geriatrics
Hypertension (hypertension) is a common problem. Both young and old people face it.When treating patients belonging to young age groups, specialists with the help of drug therapy tend to lower blood pressure to normal levels.
When treating the elderly and seniors, doctors do not set goals to achieve a certain standard. Experts are guided by softer indicators. Geriatrics does not immediately see its goal in curing all diseases. It is impossible. Helping people is provided to maintain a high quality of life and the ability to self-service, reducing the risk of disability.