How to make a heated floor. Electric floor heating
Even in ancient Rome, the floor was known to be heated by furnace gases, but over time the principle was lost. In Korea, this method has existed for thousands of years, and now the country is one of the leaders in the manufacture of warm floors.
Modern technologies of home heating through the floor implement two ways: electric and water. More convenient is the use of electric heating elements. Heated by hot water through the floor in high-rise buildings is prohibited. In a private house, its use is beneficial if a heat source other than expensive electricity is used.
Compared to radiators, a warm floor is more economical by 10-15%, since the comfort zone moves downwards and less energy is required for heating the room.
Calculation of floor heating
If electric floor heating is basic, its power should be 180-200 W / m2if additional - 120-140 W / m2. It is selected by the strength of the current passing through the heating cable, or the distance between the coils laid.
It is advisable to make the power a little more than the calculated one, since the thermostat turns off the heating when the required temperature is reached. About 80% of the floor space is heated. The distance from the walls is 5-7 cm. The cable should not be laid under household appliances and bulky furniture without legs.
The advantage over radiators is uniform heating of the room. Due to this, you can 2-3aboutC to reduce the average temperature, which will reduce energy consumption. The most effective underfloor heating will be under ceramic tiles. It should be remembered that it can be not only cold, but also hot for the legs. Here it is advisable to use a separate thermostat that maintains a comfortable temperature.
In the modern market you can find the following floor heaters:
- film infrared;
Before you make a heated floor, you should choose it correctly from the whole variety.
The principle of operation for all types of elements is to highlightheat or radiation during the passage of electric current.
- Cables are divided into resistive and self-regulating. The first has a constant power and can be single and twin core. Self-regulating consists of two parallel conductors with a conductive polymer located between them. When the temperature in some areas changes, the current in them changes and the cable does not face local overheating. It is mounted in a cement screed with a thickness of 3-5 cm.
- Film infrared heater consists of a conductor in the form of strips of laminated carbon foil. Electric current is supplied through conductors to graphite strips that generate infrared radiation, heating up the floor located above. Unlike cable, heat is evenly distributed over the entire surface like sunshine. The heater is designed for laying without glue and tie under the flooring. It does not tolerate an alkaline environment, but with waterproofing it can be laid under the tile adhesive.
- The heating mat is a thin cable with one or two conductors glued to a fiberglass mesh. The elements are interconnected with each other and with the power source using special terminals. Their width is 0.5 m, and the length may be different.Even for complex layouts, they are easy to assemble by connecting terminals with each other. The joints are additionally fastened with a sealant or adhesive tape. Mats can be placed in the adhesive layer when laying tiles. It does not require waterproofing.
How to mount a warm floor
There are different ways to create a warm floor. The heating in each of them is carried out by a certain type of heaters.
In most cases, heat insulation is used, especially if the heated floor serves as the primary means of heating. The material used polystyrene density 35. Depending on what is located below, its thickness is chosen as follows:
- concrete slab on the ground - 100 mm;
- balcony or 1st floor with a cold basement - 50 mm;
- first floor with heated basement - 30 mm;
- room above the ground floor - 20 mm.
Thermal insulation is glued or fastened with dowels (simultaneously with the grid). Floors are leveled if necessary. If the distortions are large, fit the draft screed. The floor is treated with a primer that improves the adhesion of the adhesive and protects against mold. On a heater the waterproofing film keeps within. Along the walls fit flexible tape heat insulator. You can use strips of foam.
Under the thermostat in the wall is a groove and the strobe to the floor.
Heated floor with your own hands can be laid out, if properly follow all the instructions. The heating cable is laid with a given step in the shape of a snake. It is fixed on a metal grid with mounting tape.
The thermostat is installed in the wall. It is placed in the mounting box, fixed alabaster in the recess of the wall. A corrugated tube with wires that enters the heating zone is removed from it through the gate. The temperature sensor is located between the turns of the wire. You should immediately consider the option of replacing it without destroying the screed. Places where heating is not required should be avoided.
After installation, the cable resistance is measured, and the electric floor heating is checked for operability, after which it is de-energized until the end of work.
The screed is prepared from cement solution with sand in the ratio of 1: 3 with the addition of a plasticizer. The floor will be strong if its thickness is at least 3 cm. For reinforcement, fiber can be added to the mixture. Laying is done on the beacons, with the alignment of the solution rule.As soon as the screed dries, lay ceramic tile on a special glue, designed for underfloor heating. Final hardening occurs within a month. Before this time, the floor can not be included.
Laminate can also be used as a floor heating layer, but it must be made specifically for this purpose. Ordinary material is afraid of low humidity, and also emits harmful substances when heated.
How to operate a warm floor
The warm floor is convenient because there is no direct access to the heaters. In addition, when using it, the heating temperature is low. Typically, the floor includes 70% of maximum power. In our climate, it is better to use it as a means of additional heating. Using a heated floor as the main source of heating is not the most economical way because of the high cost of electricity.
It is especially convenient to use electric flooring where ceramic tiles are used. Its high thermal conductivity requires additional heating in order not to create discomfort for the legs. In this case, the whole room is heated.
Electric heated floor creates comfort when it is used as an additional source. It can be laid in a cement screed, in a layer of tile adhesive or directly under the laminate. The uniqueness of the elements lies in the fact that any of them provides the necessary heating of the floor and room surface.