Installation of fireplaces and chimneys. Chimney for fireplaces
Virtually every country house has fireplaces,ovens, chimneys, boilers for heating, columns and other devices. Their main task is to absorb air saturated with combustion products. But what nuances need to know in order for such devices to work fully? There is an unequivocal answer to this question - a qualitative and properly assembled chimney. The importance of this criterion lies not only in productive work on air purification, but also in providing full-fledged heat with complete fire safety.
How to simplify the choice of chimney?
What is a chimney for fireplaces? This is a set of pipes in which one end is connected to a heating device, and the other is connected to the street. Its installation is a rather complex and time-consuming process, requiring certain knowledge and professionalism. Chimneys can be made of bricks, stainless steel, ceramics, polymer materials. Each of these types has its advantages, disadvantages, and also the installation features. Of course, in order to make the right choice it is better to seek professional advice. However, in order to have some idea of the device chimneys, we give below a brief description of the most common species.
Fireplaces made of bricks: the device of a chimney
The most popular types of vent channels- stone chimneys. They are designed at the stage of building the house, combining all the ventilation shafts and risers in one single system. Most often, the installation of chimneys and fireplaces of this design is built of full-bodied red brick. It has all the necessary properties and certain technical characteristics.
Any heavy device installed in the house,requires a special reinforcement of the foundation, as well as in the attachment to the bearing walls. Therefore, brick construction is a rather complex option, in which it is necessary to correctly calculate the load, traction and other indicators. Assuming even the most minor error, the results can be catastrophic. Therefore, it is recommended to read some rules that reveal the basic nuances of how to make a chimney for a fireplace, avoiding typical mistakes.
- The use of reinforcing nets with a width of 15x15 cells during the laying of the chimney will give the construction an additional strength and reliability. It is recommended to use it at least 3 rows.
- The most qualitative and giving a strong coupling is a sand-limestone solution.
- When installing a chimney in the wall, it is recommended to use anchors that are mounted in staggered steps with a 30 cm pitch. Degrease them no less than 20 cm.
The cons of brick chimneys
- The formation of condensate, which adversely affects the brickwork. Its constant impact leads to considerable destruction.
- Installing a fireplace and installing a chimney made of bricks will require additional sealing of the walls.
- The service life with good care will not exceed 10 years.
- Carrying out insulation work most often with the help of mineral wool.
- Internal irregularities lead to a decrease in profitability.
- The need to install galvanized pipes inside the stone chimneys.
Chimneys made of stainless steel
Pipes made of stainless steel are produced in different sizesand diameter. Their design is set, collected from certain elements. Such material itself does not retain heat, however, the thermal insulation is quite good. Sometimes there are combined models, the complex of which includes stainless steel pipes and ceramic ones. Most often they are intended for installation inside the main structure.
Advantages of metal chimneys
- Chimney for fireplaces made of stainless steel can be installed at various stages of construction of the house, as well as after its complete termination.
- The lightness of the construction makes it impossible to carry out additional reinforcement of the foundation and walls.
- The service life is about 20 years.
- Simple installation, the possibility of partial reconstruction.
- With the right design approach, all the pipes are expertly decorated.
Chimneys made of ceramics
Installation of fireplaces and chimneys usingCeramic pipes are made by characteristic blocks of small weight, made of concrete. Their height and dimensions are quite different, so it will not be difficult to find the most suitable parameters. Directly laying does not have a specific system, it can be laid out in different forms, however, when carrying out such work it is recommended to use vertical reinforcement, which will give the overall design of reliability and strength. Also, one should not forget about the laying of thermal insulation, for this use incombustible materials. Manufacturers can give pipes individual shapes and sizes, this greatly facilitates the selection of the most suitable option.
Advantages and disadvantages of ceramics for installation of chimneys
- service life of more than 20 years;
- Smooth surface inside the chimney provides good thermal conductivity;
- simple assembly, you can independently assemble the structure;
- a large selection of block sizes, which makes it possible to mount a chimney for fireplaces of different diameters;
- ease of cleaning is provided by the presence of a special hole;
- the formed condensate flows down a certain hole downwards, which is the guarantor of long and perfect operation.
The disadvantages of these structures are completely insignificant, but there are still:
- A high price can become an insurmountable obstacle.
- Very few domestic manufacturers are engaged in the manufacture of such products, so basically order it abroad, which can take a considerable amount of time.
A modern solution is a polymer chimney
Installation of stoves, fireplaces and chimneys, the temperature in which does not exceed 2500, can be produced using a newbuilding material - polymer. Such structures are flexible enough, lightweight, reliable and durable. For their installation, no need to carry out new ventilation ducts, it can be installed in old mines.
Tips for choosing a chimney pipe
In order to establish a quality chimney, you need to get acquainted with the advice of experienced masters.
- Choosing the optimal section. This criterion is influenced by the type and dimensions of the furnace. The most common are: 250x250, 270x270, 140x140. It is very important to calculate the exact ratio of masonry size, inlet and outlet, capacity and category of the fireplace.
- Multiplicity of air exchange. Ideal option will be two- or three-fold indicators, which are recommended by building codes.
- Installation of fireplaces and chimneys requires the installation of additional ventilation systems. With their help, the heat will disperse all over the house.
Installation rules: general recommendations
Having decided to install a fireplace in an apartment building, it is necessaryunderstand the complexity of the whole system. It is better to entrust such work to professionals, since the process itself is rather laborious, it will require accurate calculations and proper application. If the installation of the construction of such a device, consisting of many elements, to make mistakes, then this can lead to even fatal consequences.
Consider the installation technology.
- Choice of a place for a fireplace or other similar device. To begin with, it is necessary to evaluate the construction of walls and foundations, to determine the load-bearing partitions.
- Drawing drawing. It takes into account all the features of the layout of the house and the components of the unit.
- Carrying out preparatory works before installation.
- First of all, the lining of the lower part of the device is made.
- Setting the furnace.
- The chimney for the fireplace is mounted and works are carried out to connect it to the ventilation shaft.
- All joints must be sufficiently tight and additionally insulated.
- Installation of the box.
- Facing the structure.
Finally, let's talk about fire safety
Since the chimney for fireplaces is directly connected with open fire, it is necessary to adhere to fire safety rules when erecting it. They also apply to the installation of chimneys.
- First of all, it is necessary to make sure that the wooden roofing beams do not fit closely to the chimney. The recommended distance is not less than 25 cm.
- It is also worth paying special attention to the site in front of the furnace, it must be shrouded with special refractory material.
- Furniture and textiles are by no means close to the fireplace.
- All the wooden elements are additionally wrapped and covered with clay mortar.