Jacques-Yves Cousteau: so comes sea glory
The deep blue sea and Jacques-Yves Cousteau are two inseparable pictures of the world consciousness of the second half of the twentieth century. Fascinating views of the underwater world have become an integral part of life from Europe to the most closed countries of the world - the Soviet Union and North Korea. The DPRK issued postage stamps depicting Jacques Yves Cousteau, and in Kazakhstan, a former post-Soviet country, they named the corporation “Cousteau Group” with billions of dollars in its name and headquarters in Singapore. True, in recent years, unfortunately, the world is not very interested in the oceans.
The future Commander Cousteau was born on June 11, 1910 in the small town of San Andrés de Quazzac, the famous Gironde department, in southwestern France. In childhood he was a sickly child. At the age of four, Jacques learned to swim, having received the "lifelong" charm of water.
He grew up, like all children, a curious boy and was especially interested in mechanical devices.Then he began his passion for filming, he was shooting everything for a family movie camera: family celebrations, nature and, of course, the sea.
Despite his curiosity, Cousteau did not study well, so he was sent to a boarding school in Alsace at the age of 13. Then he studied in different cities of France and even some time in New York, where his father received an appointment and the family moved to live in the United States for two years.
The beginning of the sea route
To the surprise of many of his friends, because the frequent change of schools did not really help good learning, Jacques-Yves Cousteau managed to enter the Naval Academy. Three years later, in 1933, he graduated with the rank of artillery junior lieutenant and was sent to serve in Shanghai, where he began diving and underwater photography.
Jacques made an attempt to become a pilot, enrolling in the Academy of Naval Aviation. But a serious car accident brought him back to the sea. During rehabilitation, Cousteau bathed a lot and dived in the Mediterranean, where he finally and forever fell in love with the depths of the sea.
The first years of World War II, the Jacques-Yves Cousteau family lived quietly in the small town of Megrev, near the Swiss border, continuing their underwater experiments and research.
Later, he joined the French Resistance movement, where he was engaged in spying on the movements of the Italian troops and making reports on the change in their deployment. For military services, Jacques-Yves Cousteau was awarded several medals and the Order of the Legion of Honor.
After the war, he participated in the operations of the French fleet to remove sea mines. In between missions, Jacques continued underwater research, conducted tests and underwater surveys.
In 1943, Jacques-Yves Cousteau met the French engineer Emile Gagnan, a specialist in equipment using compressed air. Then they began to work together on the tubes, swimming suits and air regulators, cylinders with compressed air were already invented at about the same time.
The first apparatus for scuba diving based on their inventions were released in 1946, they were sold under the brand name Aqualung, under the name of the French manufacturer. In Russian, the apparatus for scuba diving remained scuba.
In 1948, Cousteau, together with scientists and archaeologists, made an expedition to search for the wrecked Roman ships in the Mediterranean.It was the first use of an autonomous navigation apparatus in archeology and marked the discovery of the era of underwater archeology.
Later several more expeditions were made to Corsica, Sardinia, to the Atlantic, on a ship provided by the naval department, where the scuba diving technique was worked out and research was conducted.
In order to continue to conduct their research, Cousteau bought a decommissioned British minesweeper and called it “Calypso”, converting it into an oceanographic vessel. His whole future life - the odyssey of Jacques-Yves Cousteau - was associated with this ship and the sea.
The money received for the invention of scuba, went to the purchase and refurbishment of the Calypso, and in order to earn money for further research, he began to write books and make films. He realized that in order to make money, he needed to attract the media and show people the importance of what he was doing.
In 1953, he published his first book, In the World of Silence, after which the film was shot, which received the most prestigious cinematic awards, the Oscar and the Palm Branch.The whole world plunged into the depths of the world ocean, along with Jacques-Yves Cousteau, whose films opened up the underwater world to humanity. Colossal success allowed him to receive funding from the French government and the National Geographic Society on expeditions to the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
The films of Jacques-Yves Cousteau, made during these travels, also received world recognition and another Oscar.
Underwater adventures continue
In the following decades, Cousteau Jacques-Yves, whose underwater odyssey gained worldwide fame, made several more expeditions. From 1966, he began making and producing television films. The series "The Underwater World of Jacques-Yves Cousteau" lasted nine seasons. Millions of people followed the travels of his team, wandering around the world and showing amazing pictures of marine life.
Unique shooting in the oceans formed the basis of more than 50 books and numerous television films. During his sea expeditions, Cousteau made many discoveries, improved the camera for underwater filming, invented and built an underwater research vehicle.
In 1996, the Calypso accidentally rammed a barge in the port of Singapore and sank, Cousteau tried to raise money for a new ship, but died unexpectedly on June 25, 1997 at the age of 87 years.