King Dodon. "The Tale of the Golden Cockerel", Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin
The role of the folk tale in the work of our writers of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and of AS Pushkin in particular is great. The element of folk song, epics and tales permeated the life of a peasant from birth to death. And this area of folk poetry surrounded Pushkin from childhood. His fairy tales the poet wrote for at least 20 years.
Pushkin's connection with folk poetry
In Pushkin it was not a passive retelling of subjects, not just entertaining adventures of heroes with love intrigue, but the introduction of social issues in them. An example is the greedy priest and his smart farmhand. They talk about the ideal moral standards of behavior ("The Tale of the Dead Princess"). From the folk tales of Alexander Pushkin differ primarily poetic speech. Some, earlier ones, are written in authentic folk language, when a poet becomes like a folk storyteller.Other, more recent, Pushkin's fairy tales are written in literary verse, in chorea. He, along with storytellers, modifying plots, introducing new heroes, borrowing something from the folklore of other countries, creates a new Russian fairy tale, but preserving its national flavor. Nothing like this has been written. Almost all fairy tales adults know from childhood, returning to them again when their own children and grandchildren grow up, but only in-depth analysis can reveal what hides behind the plot.
The most terrible fairy tale
In which of Pushkin's fairy tales will we find so many deaths? How true is the tale of King Dodon at all times! Phantasmagoric picture of the death of the empire and the disappearance of the dynasty was written in 1834 year. At the end of this story there are piles of dead bodies that there is no one to bury. One crow flies over them. The fiction contains a hint and a lesson to the survivors: do not allow war, especially fratricidal.
Loss of control over the situation
The brave and snooty Czar Dodon always attacked his neighbors from his youth. He did not regret anyone, he waged aggressive wars. Growing old, the ruler was tired and wanted peace. But it was not there. Neighbors, sensing the weakness of the sovereign, began to attack him from all sides. The old ruler did not know how to protect his country from raids.Therefore, he turned to the sage astrologer for help. This step, as it turns out later, turned out to be fatal.
At first everything seems to go fine. King Dodon received as a gift a magical golden cockerel. This bird notifies not only that one of the enemies has broken the border, but, turning in the right direction, loudly informs which side will be attacked. So the monarch managed to send his troops out of the country and not to allow looting in his own kingdom. Everyone now knew that this state would not tolerate audacity and give a timely rebuff. Peace flowed peacefully and calmly.
The result obtained at the end of life
Stormy youth, which was conducted by the stupid Tsar Dodon, taught him nothing. He did not enter into peace treaties with neighbors or trade, but only smashed foreign troops. He did not feel any repentance for the sins of his youth. He did not change toward old age, rejoicing at every victory of his army. Lazy and negligent, he believed that he was always right in any situation. Throughout the whole tale, his character does not change.
Behind the Scenes of the Sage's Help
When Czar Dodon was at a dead end, the sage wise man, taking out a bird from the sack, helped the tsar to rectify the situation in such a way that the monarch himself did not spend any forces and did not make any mental efforts for this. The guard of the capital, cockerel, magically collected all the information and did not stop until the governors woke up the king and went on a campaign.But the inhabitants of the capital were very afraid of the cries of a magic bird, because behind them there were battles and deaths. Ruler, to live serenely and sleep, turning over from side to side, it was necessary to calm the people. Almost for the life of the country, he was not needed. Only an astrologer was needed, a prophetic cockerel and voevods, who fought with the enemy. Or even less - the cockerel and its master-sage, who himself could give instructions to military commanders. The king was honored, but in fact he was useless. So described the king Dodon. Pushkin, following the folk tradition, did not change the royal character for the better.
The Golden Cockerel
In addition to the sage, whose thoughts the reader did not know and which remained a mystery, represents a riddle and a golden cockerel, the bird is bright, shining and sunny. In the Slavic beliefs, roosters can scare away evil spirits. They were embroidered as a charm or put over the roof ridge for the same purposes. This kind bird, which in the end was forced to avenge the death of the host, King Dodon. Golden Cockerel, seeing that the king for good repaid the astrologer with evil, flew from the weathercock, pecked the king in the crown and flew away unknown where.
Who was the enemy of the state
In fact, not foreign troops and peoples represented a danger, namely, an unlimited tyrant and his children. After all, it was with the actions of the king in his youth that bloody wars began, which could not end in any way. But having repulsed attacks from all sides, the tyrant has healed for a year or two quietly. And suddenly, scared of the whole capital and turning to the east, the rooster shouted. The king sent from the kingdom of darkness and darkness to the light from the east at the head of the army of the eldest son. And everything was quiet. Eight days passed, and again turning to the east, to the light, the cockerel predicted trouble. To help his eldest son, the old monarch sends the younger one. It takes another eight days, and again grief - the cockerel also screams, turning to the east. Then Dadon himself leads the third army. And what does he see?The dead lie both sons who fought among themselves. Meanwhile, the tent flung open, and from there came a beautiful maiden-a glowing evening glow, the appearance of which foreshadowed that King Dodon would perish. Pushkin compares the girl with the sun, and the king - with the bird of the night, and means, his days are sloping to the sunset. Seeing her, the king forgot the death of his sons. He feasted with her and took him to the capital. The queen magically had power over all men, and everyone wanted to possess it: and the young princes, who had forgotten kinship and killed each other, and the aged king, and even a skeptic who could not have an interest in women. And when the ruler killed a scout-star scout who requested the promised payment, then the whole people shuddered: the beautiful queen is not light and sun, but death itself.
Evil is rooted in autocracy. It is destroyed by fabulous forces, but how should it be in life? A. Pushkin invited the reader to learn a lesson independently. Probably, therefore, the last couplet in the press was removed in the first edition.