"Lidocaine": instructions for use, release form, composition, reviews
All of us more than once in our lives are faced with medical procedures that cause pain. Since each person is different in his influence, which in one patient does not cause a noticeable reaction, in another it can cause a shock. Therefore, doctors actively use in their practice the means for local anesthesia. One of the most popular drugs in this group is Lidocaine. Instructions for its use contains complete information about the indications, the composition of the drug, its release forms and other nuances associated with this drug. In today's article we will do a full review of Lidocaine and will definitely include in a separate section reviews of patients who are familiar with the tool and its effectiveness not by hearsay.
General characteristics of the drug
"Lidocaine" is very widely used in modern medicine.Basically it is used as a local anesthetic for medical intervention, it is also quite often used in dentistry. It differs a minimum of side effects in comparison with other drugs and long-term effects on the body.
However, do not abuse the drug and prescribe it yourself. Note that "Lidocaine" (in the instructions given a fairly wide list of contraindications) can not be used for a number of diseases. Therefore, only a doctor can determine how appropriate it is to prescribe a medicine in a given situation. Otherwise, an undisciplined patient will be able to experience the full range of side effects and cause serious harm to their health in a short period of time.
Anesthesia "Lidocaine" is very effective, but because the manufacturer has provided different forms of release. This is done so that it is convenient to apply it in different areas of medicine and in situations when pain relief is required.
The most common "lidocaine" for injection. It is produced in ampoules, each of which contains one milliliter of active substance.In addition to it, the auxiliary components are also included in the preparation, therefore, the manufacturer sells the drug in a solution of two milliliters. Twenty ampoules are enclosed in a carton. Each one has a break point and a green ring at the top, which is a peculiar quality mark.
"Lidocaine" in ampoules is a colorless, odorless liquid. Pharmacists note that the solution should be clear, but in some cases slight turbidity is allowed.
On sale in pharmacies can be found spray "Lidocaine." It is very often used in dentistry, when it is necessary to quickly anesthetize certain parts of the oral cavity. On the packaging of the aerosol indicated that the vial contains a ten percent solution of the drug. One dose contains almost five milligrams of active substance, except for it the spray consists of a number of auxiliary components, which we will talk about a little later. Most often, the aerosol goes on sale in a bottle of dark glass.
For some problems, patients are shown the use of lidocaine ointment. It is available in two-and five-percent form.A tube with an ointment can have a volume of fifteen, twenty-five and thirty grams. It contains almost two grams of active substance and four additional components.
The composition of the drug
The composition of "Lidocaine" is just one active ingredient - lidocaine. It is he who provides the analgesic effect, depending on the form of release, its content in the preparation varies (we have already indicated this in the previous section of the article).
In "Lidocaine" for injection, produced in ampoules, additional components are:
- Twelve milligrams of sodium chloride.
- Two milliliters of water for injection.
The spray "Lidocaine" contains the following substances:
- Peppermint oil.
- Propylene glycol.
Each bottle is designed for approximately six hundred and fifty doses — these are thirty-eight grams of topical solution.
Ointment "Lidocaine" composition has a wider, in addition to the active substance in each tube included auxiliary components:
In the instructions for "Lidocaine" is always indicated the dosage of the drug, but in some situations, the scheme of application is only a doctor.He may relate possible contraindications to the need for pain relief and prescribe the dosage of the drug in certain cases.
The analgesic effect of Lidocaine is not the only option for its use in medicine. Very often, the drug is used as an antiarrhythmic agent during manipulations with patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
The popularity of "Lidocaine" is understandable, because it retains its effect for about one hour and fifteen minutes. Therefore, it can not compete with other popular means for local anesthesia. It is known that with the combined use of lidocaine and epinephrine, the duration of action increases to two hours.
It is noteworthy that the active component of the drug is absorbed better and faster on the mucous membranes. If you use the tool on other tissues, then its penetration into the body will depend primarily on the dosage.
Lidocaine injections are given intramuscularly. In this case, it begins to act within fifteen minutes, approximately at the same time interval the maximum concentration of the active substance in the patient’s tissues is reached.
Indications for use of "Lidocaine"
Regardless of the form of release, this drug is indicated for those patients who have to undergo certain medical procedures accompanied by painful sensations. Lidocaine injections are actively placed in the following areas of medicine for local anesthesia:
- otolaryngology and so on.
After intramuscular injection in the body, the nerve endings are blocked, which provides a long-lasting analgesic effect.
If diluted "lidocaine" in ampoules to a ten percent solution, then you can use it as an antiarrhythmic agent. In this capacity, it has proved very effective in surgery, pulmonology, and not only.
Aerosol "Lidocaine" (instructions for use of the drug for the most part identical to all forms of release) is most often used by dentists. The spray showed itself well during the anesthesia required for short-term manipulations. For example, when installing dental crowns.
The aerosol is also used when cutting out nasal polyps and various manipulations in gynecology. For example, during operations on the cervix.
Lidocaine ointment is applied to the skin three to four times a day. It is also used to lubricate the surfaces of endoscopic devices before conducting studies of the gastrointestinal tract, for example.
Contraindications to the use of the drug
The range of contraindications for Lidocaine is quite wide. The most common of them we have collected in the following list:
- heart failure;
- pathology of the kidneys and liver;
- hypersensitivity to the components of the drug;
- low pressure;
- heart block.
Do not use this tool during pregnancy and lactation. The effect of "Lidocaine" on the fetus is not fully identified, therefore, during pregnancy, the drug can be prescribed with a noticeable benefit for the future mother and baby. It is found that the active substance of the drug penetrates into breast milk in low concentrations. This suggests that the toxic effect on the crumbs, it will not have.
In addition to the list of contraindications to "Lidocaine", pharmacists identify a group of people who should prescribe the drug with special care.These include elderly patients and children with diagnosed epilepsy, as well as individuals with a weakened immune system.
Prescribing medication to patients under eighteen years of age.
Children "Lidocaine" is prescribed depending on age. For example, when it comes to babies under one year old, doctors are very careful about using this drug. This happens in extremely rare cases if it is not possible to use other local anesthesia.
Children from one year to twelve years old “Lidocaine” can be used as a one percent solution, and the dosage is calculated on the basis of five milligrams per kilogram of child's weight.
Teenagers up to eighteen years of the drug is prescribed in the same dosage as young children. However, it should be borne in mind that the maximum amount of funds in the body should not exceed three hundred milligrams.
Each doctor must individually calculate the concentration of the drug. Usually, a specialist proceeds from the indications, the nature of the medical intervention, the disease of the patient and his body weight.It is also necessary to take into account the area where local anesthesia will be applied. For example, only thirty grams of medicine is enough to numb the nose. But in another case, you may need up to two hundred milligrams of "Lidocaine". The doctor always takes into account that a single dose of the drug for an adult should not exceed three hundred milligrams.
The tool is used in the form of a solution, it is made only before use. How to dilute "Lidocaine", every doctor knows. This is done with the help of sodium chloride, which is often called simply saline. The volume of the solution is also determined by a specialist, and to a greater extent it depends on the area of the area that needs to be anesthetized. Older people the dosage is significantly reduced, as do doctors with children.
Experts very carefully monitor the side effects that may occur when using the drug. Unfortunately, their list is quite wide. Most often, patients feel weakness, nausea, headaches, tremor, convulsions, euphoria. Also, you can often come across:
- sleep disturbance;
- reduced pressure;
- hearing problems;
- loss of sensation not only in those tissues on which anesthesia is applied;
- chest pain.
Not too often, but patients experience after anesthesia:
- chills and fever;
- shortness of breath;
- skin rashes;
- respiratory disorders;
- numbness of different parts of the body;
- pain at the injection site.
Spray has its own list of side effects:
- anxiety and stress;
- the development of depression;
- loss of consciousness.
During use in medical practice, "Lidocaine" known cases of cardiac arrest and heart attack.
Doctors say that with an incorrectly calculated dosage of the drug, the patient goes through several stages with different symptoms. Thanks to this, it is possible to determine that an overdose has occurred, and the patient must be urgently rescued, because the consequences can be extremely serious.
Initially, the patient feels tinnitus and dizziness. If you do not pay attention to these symptoms, they will turn into tremor and vision problems. The next stage is convulsions, accompanied by loss of consciousness.In the case when the patient cannot be revived, convulsions can last up to several minutes. Each time they will only increase, which is likely to cause the patient difficulty in breathing.
Even after the measures taken by the doctors to save the patient, the consequences cannot always be eliminated. Some people develop cardiovascular diseases on this background, which later have to be solved surgically.
It is noteworthy that in case of overdose with Lidocaine, it is necessary to act very quickly and harmoniously. The patient must definitely be under the supervision of doctors for quite a long time.
Cost of the drug
At once, we say that “Lidocaine” is a rather expensive product. Of course, the cost depends on the number of ampoules in the package and the volume of the bottle, but on average, you can buy the drug in pharmacies at prices ranging from two hundred to eight hundred rubles. Spray usually costs a little more than two hundred rubles for one package.
Everyone should know that only a professional can administer the drug. This should take place in specialized institutions where there is resuscitation equipment.We have already mentioned a large number of possible side effects and overdose symptoms. They can be removed only in the hospital if the equipment is available. Otherwise, the patient may lose their health.
If low blood pressure is detected, it is worth refusing to use Lidocaine and carry out a number of allergy tests. In some cases, they show intolerance to the components of the drug. Also, doctors should stop the introduction of the solution into the tissue, if the blood pressure in the process decreases.
Interaction with other drugs
Sometimes it is necessary to use "Lidocaine" in parallel with other means. Some drugs complement each other, while others significantly reduce the effectiveness of pain relief. For example, the use of Novocinamide and Lidocaine simultaneously increases the risk of side effects from the central nervous system.
Beta-blockers, together with local anesthesia, lead to arrhythmias and lower blood pressure. Also may increase the toxicity of the drug, which leads to a deterioration of the patient.
If you drink diuretics, the dosage of "Lidocaine" must be increased, since the effectiveness of the drug in this case is significantly reduced. Viral agents, on the contrary, increase the concentration of the anesthetic and increase its effect several times.
Doctors say that the simultaneous use of "Lidocaine" and other drugs for local anesthesia is not indicated for most patients. Drugs for one purpose can increase the toxicity of each other and cause side effects.
Experts try not to use "Lidocaine" with the following drugs:
Because of them, it is quite difficult to calculate the required dosage of anesthetic, as not only its toxicity increases, but also its concentration in the blood.
Patients who regularly take drugs for epilepsy should always inform their attending physician. In their total mass, they reduce the effect of "Lidocaine", which can force a specialist to increase his dose. In turn, this will lead to a possible overdose and undesirable consequences.
Do not use this tool in cases where you drink sedatives. It is also forbidden to mix the anesthetic with any other drugs. This rule should be taken extremely seriously and not violate it.
Most patients review positive for Lidocaine. In the case when the use of the drug occurs under the supervision of a physician and the dosage is chosen correctly, its effectiveness is extremely high. Any surgical procedures after anesthesia are tolerated quite easily by patients.
Of course, many are initially confused by side effects that may occur after the use of the drug. However, a professional physician will definitely make tests for allergies and will not needlessly exceed the dosage. In this case, the risk of adverse reactions becomes minimal, which is confirmed by positive patient reviews.
It is noteworthy that most of those who had a chance to test the effect of the drug on themselves, noted that they had confidence in him after they learned about the possibility of its use during breastfeeding.This indicates the maximum safety of the drug.
Rare negative comments leave people who are unhappy with a number of side effects. But doctors are always advised to use this particular drug for local anesthesia, because it is very effective and affordable.
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that "Lidocaine" is a modern, effective and suitable tool for almost all categories of persons. Therefore, it is in his favor that the majority of patients who need anesthesia during various medical procedures make the choice.