Liri's method - description and interpretation
The methodology for diagnosing interpersonal relationships waswas developed in 1954 by the American psychologist Timothy Leary (1920-1996), co-authored with G. Leforge and R. Sazek, and in 1957 published in his monograph The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality. It is interesting that this test is still actively used by US special services. A wide popularity among psychologists, due to its compactness and informativeness, is also used by Liri's method.
Description and purpose of the methodology
The test examines the person's self-image. In this case, it can be used to evaluate the representations of both the real "I" and the ideal. It is also possible to use others to evaluate if it is necessary to find out the vision of one individual in the eyes of another. In the process of diagnosis, the dominant type of relationship between the individual and others is identified. These are two key factors that determine interpersonal relationships:
1) domination - submission;
2) friendliness - aggressiveness.
These factors were identified M. Argyle as the main characteristics of interpersonal behavior. They also correlate with the two axes of the semantic differential of C. Osgood, who used bipolar scales for studying psychological variables (for example, hot-cold, strong-weak, etc.) with a fixed number of divisions on each of them.
Schematic representation of factors
For a schematic representation of the mainsocial orientations of the individual, the method of diagnosis of interpersonal relations Liri includes a conditional scheme: a circle divided into 8 sectors - octants. In the circle, two axes are distinguished (corresponding to the factors described above for interpersonal relations): "domination is subordination" and "friendliness is hostility." At the same time Leary assumed that the interrelation of these variables is the stronger, the closer are the results of the respondent to the center of the circle. The sum of the scores for each of the orientations, which determines the method of diagnosis of interpersonal Liri relations, is translated into the index according to the dominant axis. The distance between the indicators and the center of the circle determines the adaptation of interpersonal behavior.
Qualitative characteristics of the identified sectors (octants), which determines the methodology of interpersonal relations T. Leary, can be represented as follows:
I. A good leader, mentor and advisor.
II. Confident type, independent and competitive.
III. Sincere, direct, persistent in their achievements.
IV. Skeptical, nonconformist, realistic in their judgments.
V. Modest and shy, willingly fulfilling someone else's duties.
VI. Needing help and trust from others.
VII. Friendly, eager to cooperate.
VIII. Empathizing and able to help others.
Procedure for conducting and processing results
The Leary method includes 128 evaluativejudgments, in each of the eight types of relations which form 16 points. These points are arranged in ascending order of intensity. In doing so, the methodology is constructed in such a way that the characteristics aimed at identifying a certain type of relationship are arranged in a special way: not in a row, but in groups, four judgments in each, repeating itself through an equal number of judgments.
Lyri's method, interpersonal relationsdirected, can be accompanied by two types of instructions. In the first of them, respondents are asked to carefully read and evaluate the judgments that characterize the psychological characteristics of a person and the relationship with others. If, in the opinion of the respondent, the judgment corresponds to his idea of himself, then it must be marked with a "+" sign, if it does not correspond - with the "-" sign.
In the second variant of the instruction, the Liri techniqueinvolves the evaluation of not only the real "I", but also the ideal. Example: "After evaluating your real" I ", please read all the judgments once again and mark with the" + "sign those that correspond to your idea of what you would like to see yourself in the ideal." In this case, you can subsequently determine the level of discrepancy between the individual's real and ideal representations of himself. Evaluation of the relationship of others can also be reflected in the instructions that the Leary method suggests. Example: "As in the first case, please evaluate the identity of your colleague (boss, spouse, child, etc.)." Accordingly, it is possible to diagnose a system of seeing one individual by another.
Treatment of the Leary method involves severalstages. Initially, the number of points for each of the identified 8 types of interpersonal relationships (authoritarian, selfish, aggressive, suspicious, subordinate, dependent, friendly, altruistic) is counted.
The next step is to determine the degreeseverity type. The maximum level rating for each type that Liri's method of interpersonal relations presupposes can be 16 points, which, in turn, are divided into 4 degrees of the expression ratio:
- from 0 to 4 points: low degree of expression (adaptive behavior);
- from 5 to 8 points: moderate degree of severity (also adaptive behavior);
- from 9 to 12 points: high degree of severity (extreme behavior);
- from 13 to 16 points: extreme degree of severity (extreme to pathology behavior).
The third stage of processing, which impliesmethod of diagnosis of interpersonal relations T. Leary, is the definition of indicators for the two main vectors: dominance - friendliness. Calculations are performed using the following formulas:
Domination = (I - V) + 0.7 x (VIII + II - IV - VI).
Friendliness = (VII - III) +0.7 x (VIII - II - IV + VI).
Finally, as a final step, the methodologyLiri implies a qualitative analysis, carried out by comparing discograms built on the basis of the data obtained for each respondent, with each other. It is also possible to build an average profile of interpersonal relationships in a particular group. The use of the questionnaire in the system of general educational institutions seems to be optimal. In addition, a longitudinal study (for example, within the framework of a particular class) may be indicative, the possibility of which also provides a technique for diagnosing interpersonal relations T. Leary.
Interpretation of the main indicators of the relationship is carried out in 8 types:
I. Authoritarian type of relations
From 13 to 16 points. A type of strong personality, distinguished by an imperious, dictatorial character. He prefers to lead in all types of group activities. It is based only on one's own opinion, does not like to listen to the advice of others, while he constantly instructs everyone. The surrounding, in turn, prefer to recognize the power of the individual.
From 9 to 12 points. Characteristic for an energetic dominant personality, which requires respect. She is successful in business, enjoys authority, likes to give advice to others.
From 0 to 8 points. Also distinguishes self-confident personality, for which intrinsic persistence and perseverance are characteristic. However, this person need not necessarily be a leader.
II. Egoistic type of relationship
From 13 to 16 points. Independent, selfish and narcissistic personality type. Prudent, loves to shift difficulties to others. On the one hand, it seeks to rise above other people, on the other - it keeps them somewhat alienated. Also differs boastfulness and arrogance.
From 0 to 12 points. There are selfish traits and an orientation towards oneself. Tends to compete.
III. Aggressive relationship type
From 13 to 16 points. The behavior towards the surrounding is tough and aggressive. Hostility borders on asociality.
From 9 to 12 points. It differs frankness, straightforwardness and exactingness in relation to others. Irreceptible, irritable - inclined to blame others in everything; ironic and harsh.
From 0 to 8 points. An energetic and persistent type, distinguished by perseverance and stubbornness.
IV. Suspicious type of relationship
From 13 to 16 points. The type of suspicious and sensitive person who doubts everything. Evil, often complaining about others. Strives to fence himself off from the outside world, considering him hostile and spiteful. It can occur in a schizoid type of character (Liri's technique in this case can be supplemented with the MMPI test).
From 9 to 12 points. Closed secretive type. Because of the suspicion and constant fear of a bad attitude towards themselves, one can have difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Skeptical, disappointed in people; a negative attitude towards others can be manifested in verbal aggression.
From 0 to 8 points. Is critical of both in relation to others, and in relation to all phenomena of social reality.
V. The subordinate type of relationship
From 13 to 16 points. Is inclined to give in to others; differs obedience, passivity and weak will. There can also be self-abasement and self-condemnation, ascribes to itself guilt. He puts himself in the last place. He is looking for a support in someone stronger than himself.
From 9 to 12 points. This type of personality is distinguished by meekness and shyness; easily comes to embarrassment. Can obey a stronger personality, not taking into account the conditions of a particular situation.
From 0 to 8 points. Characteristic for a compliant, modest and timid personality. Does not differ in his own opinion, easily obeys, obediently fulfills his duties. Emotion prefers to restrain.
VI. Dependent relationship type
From 13 to 16 points. Strongly dependent on someone else's opinion. Dependence of this type is explained by his sharp lack of confidence in himself and his own strengths. Feels anxiety and obsessive fears on any, even a minor matter.
From 9 to 12 points. It differs in helplessness and inability to show resistance to others, sincerely believing that they are always right. Listened and timid.
From 0 to 8 points. Trustful and conformal type. It is inclined to trust others and admire them. It differs with softness and politeness.
VII. Friendly relationship type
From 9 to 16 points. This type is different in orientation to social acceptance and approval, trying to be good for everyone, without taking into account the peculiarities of the situation. In relation to the surrounding people is friendly and polite. Among the protective mechanisms, displacement and suppression prevail. Characteristic emotional lability. An hysteroid type of character is possible (it is also possible to use the MMPI test in addition).
From 0 to 8 points. Flexible in solving problem situations. In conflicts, he aspires to cooperation and compromise. Consciously shows signs of conformity, as it seeks to reach agreement with others. He obeys conventions, respects the rules of good tone. Initiative, ready to help others. Also different is the desire to be in the center of attention, to receive recognition and love from others. Sociable and friendly.
VIII. The altruistic type of relationship
From 9 to 16 points. It is characterized by pronounced hyperopia, as well as responsibility for others - often unjustified. Ready to help others to the detriment of their own interests. At the same time, in the help it can show excessive activity and even obtrusiveness. However, in some cases, this behavior can also be a kind of mask. In this case we are dealing with the opposite type of relationship.
From 0 to 8 points. For this type of characteristic disinterestedness and responsiveness. He is responsible to other people, shows them responsiveness and compassion. Soft, delicate and caring.
Interpretation of results
The method of diagnosis of interpersonal relations T. Liri assumes a sufficiently wide volume of information for the study of the personality of the respondent. If the testing was conducted in a group form, the researcher, as already mentioned, has the ability to compare the results of individual individuals with the group profile, and also with each other. When interpreting the results, it is important to focus not on absolute values, but on the dominance of indicators of one type over others. This is also important to consider if there is a negative attitude of parents to the defect of their child (the methods of "PARI" Leary).
If an evaluation is made of both the "I" of the real and"I" of the ideal, then there should normally be no significant differences between them. In turn, if there is a moderate level of discrepancy, this indicates the possibility of self-improvement, which, in fact, indicates the method of Leary. Interpretation of the results of the questionnaire revealed the fact that, most often, dissatisfaction is typical for people with low self-esteem (which corresponds to 5, 6 and 7 octant) or for those who are in a state of prolonged conflict (corresponding to the 4th octant).
If the respondent has a simultaneousthe predominance of the 1st and 5th octant, this indicates that he has a problem of authoritarianism and morbid self-esteem; 2 nd and 6 th - there is a contradiction between the desire for independence and the need to obey (for example, when due to official need the individual must obey, despite his inner protest). The conflict between the 3rd and the 7th octant takes place in the conflict of motives for self-affirmation and affiliation; 4th and 8th - is manifested when the individual suppresses hostility towards others for the sake of recognizing them (the desire to recognize by the group and the simultaneous feeling of hostility to it).