Pushkin, "Poltava": a summary
In this article we will talk about the poem of A.S. Pushkin "Poltava". Summary will be the main focus. Also a little look at the history of creation and themes.
About the work
The poem was written in 1828. Already from the name it is clear that the discussion will deal with the Battle of Poltava, which took place in June 1709. Working on the work, Pushkin turned to historical sources, as well as folk legends, thoughts and songs. “Poltava”, a brief summary of which we will present below, is saturated with fabulous and folklore motifs.
Initially, the poem was called "Mazepa", by the name of the main character. But at the last moment the author decided to change it. Later, Pushkin wrote that he did it because he did not want to become Byron's epigon. English Romance had a work entitled Likewise.
Pushkin, "Poltava": a summary. Outset
The poem begins with a description of the wealth of Kochubey, the Ukrainian general judge. But his main treasure is the daughter Maria, the first beauty in Poltava. Not only is this the beauty of a girl, she also has a gentle disposition.Many suitors managed to woo her, but none of them fell in love with Mary. Once he decided to send hetman Mazepa himself to matchmakers to a girl. He is not the first youth, but on the other hand, the true feeling that does not fade away until his death boils in him.
Kochubey and his wife become indignant upon learning of the old man’s desire. The point is not only in age, but also in the fact that Mary is his goddaughter. The girl's mother says that the hetman is a wicked person; you cannot give your own daughter for such a person. Upon learning of what is happening, Maria loses her feelings. For two days she tries to recover, and then disappears into the unknown. No one can understand how a girl managed to escape. Only the fisherman tells that he heard the tramp of horse hooves at night, and in the morning he found traces.
Where is Mary gone?
It does not begin at all with a description of military events, as it would be logical to assume, “Poltava”, a brief content of which is a direct confirmation of this. But back to the plot. Soon Kochubey learns that his Maria escaped to Mazepa. He understood why Mary lost her senses. Father decides to take revenge on the hetman. During the events described, Peter the Great stood in power. Fighting with the Swedes and their king Charles XII, Russia has become stronger, but there were unrest in Ukraine. The people demanded that the hetman break the treaty with Russia and become an ally of the Poles.Mazepa ignored such statements, while remaining loyal to Peter.
Young Ukrainians grumbled, hoping, along with Karl, to go to war against "hated" Moscow. However, no one knew that Mazepa had his own secret and insidious plan. Getman long nurtured him, not opening to anyone, but on the upcoming betrayal Kochubey visited. Revenging for insulting his daughter and his home, he decides to send Peter a letter in which he reveals the traitor’s plans. Once upon a time Kochubey with the hetman were bosom friends and trusted each other. At that time, Mazepa told about his plan. Now there was enmity and resentment between the comrades, which could not be demolished. Love, Kochubey's wife, stirs up her husband's hatred. It only remains for the hero to find a person who is not afraid to deliver a denunciation of the hetman to Peter.
The reason for the bloody war was the desire to take revenge - this is what Poltava tells. The summary makes it clear that Kochubey was driven by low passions. A Poltava Cossack volunteered to help the judge, who was unrequitedly in love with Mary, his feelings did not fade even after the girl's escape. The young man craves revenge on the old seducer.The Cossack sews a denunciation in a hat and sets off. Mazepa, not knowing about betrayal, begins to weave intrigues in order to raise Poland, Turkey and the Crimea against Moscow. However, the sovereign ignored the denunciation, after which the Russian grandees handed him over to Mazepa.
Getman goes to Peter, talking about his loyalty and demanding to execute slanderers, among whom is his beloved father. Maria does not know that Kochubey was prepared, they keep everything from her in secret. The girl loves Mazepa faithfully and believes all his words.
Mazepa appears cold, calculating and dishonest in the poem “Poltava” (Pushkin). Summary, albeit not fully, reveals the nature of this character. Mazepa is immersed in himself, his mind is “embarrassed by cruel dreams.” Even Mary cannot dispel his thoughts; he remains cold to all her caresses. The girl, offended by this attitude, begins to reproach her lover, saying that she has disgraced herself and her family for the sake of it, has ruined her life and has become unhappy. She wants the hetman to her opened the reason for his reverie. Then Mazepa says that he wants to raise Ukraine against Moscow.
This news makes Mary happy, she is delighted with the beloved’s intention and wants to see him with the royal crown on his brow. The girl is ready to keep him loyalty to the last, even if you have to go with him to the block. Then the hetman decides to test Marina and asks who is more precious to her - her spouse or father. The girl hesitates, but the hetman needs a definite answer. He forces her to choose: the death of whom she prefers, if you have to choose between them. In the end, Maria calls the name of her husband.
The summary of the poem “Poltava” by Pushkin continues. Night. In the old castle of Belaya Tserkov Kochubey sits and is waiting for his execution. He is not afraid of death, but oppression is a loss of honor and shame. The king gave him to reproach the enemy, and the hero does not have anyone to whom he could bequeath to avenge himself.
Suddenly the door of the chamber opens, Orlik comes in, known for his bloodthirsty temper. Mazepa learned that Kochubey has treasures, and now he sent his subordinate to know everything. The prisoner replies that he had treasures - his own honor and the honor of his daughter, but Mazepa took them away from him. The third treasure is the holy revenge for his death, but it will have to be attributed to God.Orlik tries Kochubey, but he does not manage to find anything out. Without knowing where the gold is hidden, the Cossack passes the prisoner into the hands of the executioner.
The secret is revealed
The summary of the story "Poltava" conveys the drama of the poem. Pushkin vividly and plausibly draws a picture of long-standing events, although much of his work is only a fiction. Maria does not know about the fate that befell her father. Mazepa deliberately hides this news from her, because she is afraid of how the girl will react to it. The hetman begins to repent of the fact that he had deceived her, it was impossible to put a “quivering doe and a horse” in one cart. Mazepa leaves her young wife alone in the chambers and leaves the palace, tormented by doubts.
Just before dawn, Lyubov managed to sneak into her daughter’s room, which reveals a terrible truth to Mary. At first, the mother does not believe that the girl knows nothing, then she begins to ask her to fall at Mazepa’s feet and beg to spare her parent. Maria is terrified, unable to cope with her feelings, she faints.
The execution and the beginning of the war
To the place where they are going to execute Kochubey, people are flocking.The convicts are brought - this is Kochubey himself and the Spark who helped him. They ascend to the block, and they are beheaded, which the executioner shows to the crowd, holding them by the forelock. Some time after the terrible event, two women rush into the square, but they realize that they are late.
Mazepa returns home after the execution and sees that Mary is missing. He sends Cossacks to search for her, but all attempts are in vain. The loss of the beloved does not prevent the hetman from carrying out his plan. Mazepa succeeds in pretending to be sick and persuade Karl to transfer all military operations to Ukraine. And now Mazepa heads the regiments going to fight with Peter. The tsar himself leads the Russian squads. The two armies converge, ready for battle.
On the night before the battle, Mazepa tells Orlik that he is disappointed with Carl, who has proved incapable of autocratic power. Then the Cossack offers the hetman to return to the side of Peter before it is too late. Then Mazepa tells what she wants revenge on the sovereign. Once at a feast, Peter grabbed the hetman for his mustache, because he said something extra. But such an insult Cossack can not demolish.
Summary - poem "Poltava". Decoupling
The battle begins at dawn.Russian regiments, inspired by the presence of Peter, are beginning to push the Swedes. Getman observes what is happening at a distance. The battle ends with the victory of the “Muscovites”.
Peter goes to his tent to feast. At this time, Mazepa and Karl, riding their horses, flee from persecution of the winners. At night, they stop at a halt at the Dnieper. Suddenly, someone calls them. Mazepa turns and sees Maria. A girl in rags, with sparkling eyes and flowing hair. He understands that she has lost her mind. Mary does not recognize her husband and again disappears into the darkness. In the morning the fugitives continue their journey. So ends a very brief content. “Poltava” is a poem that must be read in full.