Suffixes of nouns. Spelling of nouns suffixes
called the noun "bread language". Indeed, without the use of this part of speech it is impossible to construct sentences. Objects, things, events and states, people and animals, feelings and emotions - we convey all this in speech using nouns.
When writing the words of this part of speech should follow the rules. The greatest difficulties are caused by endings and suffixes. About how to write the suffixes of nouns, and will be discussed in the article.
Uniform spelling suffixes
The correct spelling of many morphemes of the Russian language is subject to the morphological principle, that is, they are written uniformly in all words and word forms. There are such suffixes and nouns. They just need to learn.
These are such suffixes as IZN, OT, IN, OST, OTN, OVN and some others. Cheap, expensive, white; good, red, simple; silence, depth; shorts, youngsters, proud; running, tricks; boltovnovya and so on.Such suffixes are mostly characteristic of words derived from adjectives and verbs.
It is recommended to memorize the spelling of words formed from verbs with the help of the suffixes IV and EB, for example, "toplivo", "mesiVo", "varevo", "circle" and others. Any rule cannot be applied to them, they need to be remembered or checked by a dictionary.
Suffixes IC and EC
Suffixes of nouns IK and EK are used to form a diminutive form and sound the same when pronounced. They need to be written in accordance with a very simple rule. If, when a word is declined, the vowel "runs away" - then this is the EK suffix, and if it does, it is the IR suffix. A classic example that schoolchildren love and remember easily is the lock and key. We bow the words and see:
- lock - lock (vowel "ran away");
- the key is the key (the vowel remains in place).
Applying this rule, you must first correctly find the suffix in the word. For example, the word “ball” is the root of the BALL and the IC suffix we know, the word “pilot” has a YEAR lap and the suffix is CHIK, and the word “boy” does not have a suffix, but there is only a root and a zero ending. It is important to remember: there are no nouns with the suffix CHECK in Russian!
- Conclusion.To select IC or EC, you need to see if the vowel falls in the form of oblique cases.
Suffixes EC and IC
The spelling of the EC and IC nouns is similar to the preceding paragraph of the rule. Here, too, during declination, the vowel falls out of the EC morpheme, but remains in the IC morpheme. But there is one more nuance. EC is written in the masculine words: youth, handsome, foreigner. Accordingly, the IC will belong only to the feminine words: beauty, snowfall, sloth.
Here everything seems to be simple. But what about mean words, attentive readers will ask? They also have a vowel when declining does not fall out anywhere. And here another principle works, and you need to pay attention to stress. If the stress falls on the ending, we write the EC: palozo, letter. If the shock is the basis of the word - we write the suffix IC: dress, name, name, jam.
- Conclusion.The suffixes EC and EC depend on the gender of the word. Ate the word of the middle kind - we look at the stress.
Suffixes ICC and ECHK
Suffixes of nouns ISC and ECHK are also found in gentle and diminutive names of both animate and inanimate objects. To distinguish from is very simple. ICHK is written in the words that are formed from forms with the suffix IC: ladder - ladder, sister - sister, mill - mill.ECHK is used in all other words, including affectionately diminutive forms of proper names: baby - baby, cat - cat, Olya - OLECHKA.
- Note. The use of names Tanichka, ManichK and other similar is found in works of fiction, but is not normalized.
It should also be borne in mind that in Russian there is no suffix YACHK.
- Conclusion.The spelling of the ECHC and HAC suffix depends on the presence of the IC suffix at the heart of the word from which the noun is derived.
Suffixes ONK and ENK
The spelling of the suffixes of nouns with the caressing meaning of ONK and ENK rarely causes difficulties, because they are usually clearly heard when pronounced. But nevertheless we generalize: ONK should be written after a firm consonant, ENK - after a soft or sizzling. A scythe is a scythe, a birch is a birch, but a daughter is a daughter, the night is a night, Yulia is Yulia. Exceptions can be considered diminutive versions of the words "mom" and "dad": only MOM and DAD are admissible, despite the fact that the basis of these words ends in solid consonants. It is also necessary to memorize the spelling of words that do not obey the rule, "proclaim", "paenc", "bainki". They are written in a special way and are vocabulary.
- Conclusion.The suffixes ONK and ENK depend on the softness / hardness of the previous consonant.
Combinations of IN-K and EN-K and the suffixes of the INC and EHK
Suffixes of nouns are also interesting because it is difficult to select them correctly. Words have a similar meaning, but are formed using different suffixes. For example, the words "pea" and "snowflake" denote a diminutive form of an object, but the former is derived from the word "snow" using the INC. Morpheme, and the other is derived from the word pea-in-a by adding the suffix K.
- The combination of IN-K is written in words formed from feminine nouns with the suffix IN: balerIN-Ka from balerIN, and beads-Ka from beadIN.
- The combination of EH-K is found in words derived from nouns ending in -NEV: vishn-ka - from vishnya, cherries-ka - from cherry, and so on.
The suffixes of nouns INC. And EHC are difficult to explain with any clear rule. EuNC is found in the words for women: beggar woman, monk woman, French woman, and others. Accordingly, in words that do not have such a meaning, the INC. Suffix is written: gorLinka, smesHINKA, zadorINKa. If the doubtful suffix is in an unstressed position, it is better to check the dictionary.
- Conclusion.The spelling of suffixes and combinations of EHC (EN-K) and INC (IN-K) depends on the morphemic composition of the word or is regulated by a dictionary.
Suffixes of Nouns after Sizzling
The letters OE in the noun suffixes in the position after the hissing sound the same, which is why this orthogram causes the most difficulties, and it is with it that the most errors are associated. In fact, the rule is very simple.
In the noun suffixes OK-EC, ONA-ENK, ONOK-ENOK and similar, under the stress is written O, without stress is written E. Examples of shock positions: rechONK, mezhvonok, circle. Unstressed suffixes: daughters, little words and others.
As you can see, OE after sizzling nouns in suffixes is very easy to distinguish!
But there is one nuance (after all, the Russian language does not recognize the rules without exceptions). This rule does not apply to words derived from verbs. In them, regardless of the place of stress, you should always write E (most often such suffixes are precisely in the shock position, and this is misleading). Night - we write E, because of the verb "sleep", condensed milk - we write E, because of the verb "thicken", tushenka - is explained similarly.
- Conclusion.Suffixes of nouns after hissing depend on the place of stress (with the exception of verbal words).
Suffixes chick and schick
Suffixes of nouns cause difficulty when writing not only vowels, but also consonants. A vivid example is the CHIK and SHIKH, sizzling in the noun suffixes, which often sound the same in oral speech. Most often, these suffixes form words with the meaning of a profession or occupation: "roofer", "scout", "handler", etc. How can they be distinguished?
The suffix CHIK is written only after the letters D, T, H, C, F: the miner, prikazhIK, defector. The morpheme of the SHCHIK is written after all the other sounds: the stonemason, the recruiter, etc.
It is noteworthy that the soft sign is never written before the CHIK suffix, and before the SHIKH is preserved only in one case - after L: the player, the backer, the typesetter.
- Conclusion.The choice of the suffix CHIK or SHCHIK depends on the previous consonant sound.
N and NN in noun suffixes
Double vowels are found in the words of any parts of speech, including nouns. How to determine how much H to write in the suffixes of this part of speech?
- One N is written if the noun is formed without the addition of the suffix H from the word, the base of which ended in one H: YUNOST from young, direct from direct, and so on.
- Two N is written at the junction of morphemes, that is, if a noun is formed from a word with a base on H by adding another N: change - from change with addition NIK, price - from price with addition NIK.
- NN is also written if the noun is formed from an adjective or participle, already having doubled N. in its composition. Conviction - from a sure, restraint - restrained.
- Conclusion.Writing one or two N in a noun depends on the morphemic composition of the word, as well as on the number of H in the word from which it is formed.
Let's sum up
Suffixal method - the main way of word formation of nouns. This probably explains the richness and variety of suffixes of this part of speech. Here are common morphemes such as OST, EK, ONK, but there are also rare or outdated suffixes, for example, the FIRM in the word "mokryad", YS in the word "foundling" or UN in the word "runner".
The difficulty is that all suffixes that form nouns require the use of a special rule, as well as knowledge of the morphemic composition of the word and the method of word formation. Therefore, when studying the spelling of nouns, you will have to turn to dictionaries very often.