Syllables is what? Kinds of syllables and rules of division into syllables
Linguists distinguish such a thing as syllables. Learning the language you need to be able to correctly determine their boundaries in words and distinguish them by type. Consider the most basic types of syllables, as well as the rules of division.
Syllables - what is it?
There are different approaches to determining thisconcepts. From the point of view of phonetics, the syllable is a single sound or a group of sounds accompanied by an exhalation. In a word, there are as many syllables as there are vowels in it. We can say that the syllable is the minimal pronouncing unit.
The syllable (or syllabic sound) is a vowel. Consonant, respectively, is considered non-logical.
Types of syllables
Syllables are also classified into open and closed. Closed syllables end in a consonant, and open syllables end in a vowel. In Russian there is a tendency to open the syllable.
Also, if the syllable begins with a vowel of sound, it is naked, and if with a consonant it is covered.
There are still syllables on the acoustic structure:
- ascending, where from a less sonorous (deaf consonant) comes and / or a sonoric consonant, and / or a vowel (pa-pa).
- descending, where, unlike the ascending one, the syllable begins from the vowel, and then the sonoric consonants and / or the deaf ones (the mind) already go.
- ascending-descending, where the similarity is obtained"rollercoaster", in which first agree on the degree of sonority, then the vertex is a vowel sound, and then - "descent" down, starting with the most sonorous consonants (ping-pong).
- even syllables are one vowel, that is, open and open syllables are even and consist of only one vowel (a).
Shock and unstressed syllables
Shock syllable is a syllable, the vowel of which is stressed, that is, the vowel stands in a strong position. The impact stress does not fall on unstressed syllables.
And unstressed syllables, in turn, are divided intoTwo types with respect to the stressed syllable: zaudarnye and pre-shock. It is not difficult to guess that the pre-war are facing the stressed syllable, the percussion, respectively, after. They are also divided into pre-percussion / percussive syllables of different orders with respect to the percussion. The first pre-shock or zadarny is closest to the hit, the second in order is behind the first shocked and pre-shock, and so on.
Take for example the word che-re-do-va-n-e, where allsyllables, it is worth noting, are open. Shock will be the fourth syllable-to-first, the first pre-syllable-the syllable -to-, the second -re-, the third- But the first zaudarny will be-no-second, -e.
How to divide a word by syllables?
All words can be divided into syllables. In different languages, division can occur in different ways. But how is the division in the Russian language? What are the nuances of the rule?
In general, the division follows general principles:
- How many vowels, so many syllables. If the word has one vowel sound, then this is one syllable, since the vowels are syllabic. For example, these are the words: cat, whale, one, current, which consist of one syllable.
- A syllable can only be a vowel. For example, according to syllables the word "this" is divided as e-that.
- Open syllables end in vowels, closed -consonants. Examples of openness: mo-lo-ko, de-le-ni-e, co-ro-va. Closed syllables are found, as a rule, at the end of the word or at the junction of consonants (com-pot, mole, give). In Russian, as already mentioned, there is a tendency to open the syllable.
- If the word has the letter "d", then it goes to the previous syllable. For example, mine.
- At the junction of the two vowels, division occurs in the middle, because there can not be two vowels in one syllable. In this case, it turns out that the first syllable is an open syllable, and the second syllable is undisguised (haha).
- All sonar (m, n, l, p) at the junction of consonants before the deaf usually "stick" to the preceding sounds, forming a syllable.
Theories of allocation
Nevertheless, there is no clear framework for what exactlyis a syllable and where its boundaries pass. The main thing is the presence of a vowel, but the definition of boundaries can occur in different ways. There are several basic theory of dating.
- Sonor theory based on the principle ofwaves of sonority of the syllable. Developed by her scientist from Denmark, Otto Espersen, and for the Russian language continued the idea of R.I. Avanesov. He distinguished four degrees of sonority, beginning with more sonorous and ending with non-sonorities. At the top are vowels, then the second degree is followed by sonorous, the third degree is sonorous noisy, and in fourth place - completely deaf consonants. That is, the syllable is a combination of a vowel with less sonorous sounds, down to non-sonorous ones.
- The expiratory theory (exhalation)implies that the syllable is one exhaled push. How many pushes, so many syllables. However, the minus of this theory is the uncertainty of the boundary of the syllable at the junction of consonants. In this theory, you can use a candle to understand how many syllables (air pushes) in a word.
- The theory of "muscular tension" bears within itselfthe idea that in the syllable the levels of maximum and minimum muscular tension (ie, tension of the organs of speech) are combined. The boundary of the syllable will be the sounds of minimal muscular tension.
Now that you know the rules for dividing words into syllables, you will not have problems with word wrapping.