The area of Luxembourg, description and photo
It is generally accepted that the state is quiteA large area with a certain number of people living on it. All this applies to any country in the world, but there are such powers, the size of which does not fit into the notion of a simple philistine about the average country. One of such dwarf states is Luxembourg, the area of which is about 2586.4 square meters. km. About him and talk more in the article.
This European country is situated between threethe largest states: Germany, France and Belgium. The whole area of Luxembourg has a state border, the total length of which is 359 kilometers. At the same time, the coast line is completely absent (there is no outlet to the sea). The state holiday in the country is June 23 - National Day.
Population and language
As you already knew, the area of Luxembourg, photowhich is given below, is so small that the number of people permanently residing in the country is also insignificant and amounts to 576,249 people at the beginning of 2016. The state languages in the state are French and Luxembourgish. The main religion is Catholicism.
The first people lived in the territory that is nowoccupies the area of Luxembourg, another 35,000 years ago. During the Neolithic period in the south of the present-day country, ancient settlers erected dwellings from trees, and the walls were covered with clay and vine. In the period from the sixth to the first century BC, Luxembourg was populated by Gauls, and afterwards the country became part of Rome. Also, the state survived the invasion of the Franks.
The Age of the Middle Ages
During this period, Luxembourg's lands wereand the Holy Roman Empire, and Lorraine. In 963 the country gained independence, but already in 1477 the Habsburgs came to power, and later the area of Luxembourg was influenced by Spain. After the uprising, organized by the Netherlands against the Spanish ruler, Luxembourg went under the protectorate of the Dutch. Subsequently, the state was alternately influenced by France and Spain.
During the First World War, Luxembourg (squarethe country indicated above) took a neutral position, but this did not save her from the occupation by German troops in 1914. In 1919, the authority was taken over by the Committee of Public Salvation, but as a result, the French garrison regained control of the power of the monarchy.
The second occupation for Luxembourg came in 1940year. And again the Germans came to the country. But this time the government did not go on about the invaders, and therefore all the nobles left their homes. The duchy plunged into the power of traditional Nazi orders, and the French language was doomed. At the end of 1941, the country entered the Third Reich. About 12 thousand people were mobilized, another 3 thousand were able to escape, and approximately the same number of people died in hostilities.
In the autumn of 1944, the whole area of Luxembourg wasfreed from the Nazis, and the country joined the economic union with the Netherlands and Belgium (the so-called Benelux was formed). In 1949, a small but proud state became a member of the NATO military bloc, thereby violating its long-standing military neutrality. In 1964, the throne of the duchy was Prince Jean, who in October 2000 was forced to abdicate because of poor health and old age. In his place was his son Henri.
The head of Luxembourg is the Grand Duke. He personally exercises executive power in the country on the basis of the constitution. It is he who determines the quantitative composition of the government and the order of its functioning, reads and approves various laws, defines people for military and civil positions, is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, has the right to conclude international agreements, etc.
The Government of Luxembourg is governed byprime minister. Legislative branch of power is represented by the Chamber of Deputies, which is elected for a five-year term through general elections under a proportional system. Persons who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to take part in elections.
The area of Luxembourg, the description of which is givenin the most detailed manner in this article, is divided into three counties: Luxembourg, Grevenmacher, Diekirch. In each of the districts the main person is the commissar, and the cantons are ruled by the mayors. In municipalities, self-government bodies are represented by electoral councils. The number of cantons is twelve, and the communes - 105.
Constitutional oversight exercises how easy it is toguess, the Constitutional Court. The highest authority in the judicial hierarchy is the Supreme Court, which includes the Court of Cassation and the Court of Appeal. There are also district and also world courts. The law enforcement system is represented by the Police of the Grand Duchy.
Despite the fact that the area of Luxembourg in the square. km is not too high, this state is rather highly developed. Due to the presence of an offshore zone, the capital of the country hosts about a thousand different investment funds and more than two hundred banking institutions, which in turn is much larger than in any other locality in the world. In terms of per capita income, the country ranks fourth in the world ranking. One-tenth of the gross domestic product of Luxembourg is the extraction of iron ore raw materials, as well as the production of pig iron.
One can not ignore the fact thatthe state has a huge external debt, which especially grew during the crisis period of 2008-2011. The basis of the country's economy is a variety of services, and in the financial sector as well.
Also in the economy of the country there was a placebanking, telecommunication networks are developing, video and audio equipment is being produced, chemical products, machinery, fabrics, porcelain, glass, and plastics are being manufactured. Foreign companies like working in Luxembourg also because often local workers are fluent in several foreign languages.
The area of Luxembourg in ths. km2 is insignificant, and its real estate market is quite expensive. In 2008, the average cost of one square meter of living space in the country was almost 4,800 euros.
The following fees are included in the tax system of the state:
- Income tax levied on individuals.
- Income tax paid by corporations.
- The municipal tax.
- Property tax.
- Value added tax.
Municipalities have the right to collect only one tax - land tax.
Power engineering, communication, transport
Studying the area of Luxembourg, more informationabout which is presented in this essay, we note that the total length of roads for vehicles is 5100 kilometers, the railway tracks stretched for 370 kilometers. The main river port of the country is Mertert. There is also an oil pipeline with a length of 48 km.
The state telephone communication is fully automated. At the same time, the country leases three underwater communication cables TAT-b, laid between Europe and North America.
Almost all types of energy consumed in Luxembourg are imported from abroad, including hard coal, natural gas, oil.
The area of the city of Luxembourg is 51.73 square meters. km. It can not be said that many people live in the main city of the country. According to data for 2016, the number of the capital's population is about 115 thousand. At the same time, the percentage of foreigners is very high - 58%. The city itself is located at an altitude of 316 meters at sea level and is located at the confluence of two not too large rivers - Petrus and Alzet. The climate in the capital is temperate oceanic, mild. Winter passes very gently, and in summer the temperature does not often rise above the mark of +25 degrees Celsius. In addition, it is very rare in the city is sunny, often overcast. Precipitation falls year-round, and in winter, abundant and protracted snowfalls often occur.
The main square of the city of Luxembourg is the squareConstitution, which is not very large in size. In its center there is a monument to those inhabitants of the city who died during the First and Second World Wars. At the foot of this monument is a statue of a soldier who mourns over his dead brethren. The top of the sculptural work is crowned with the figure "Golden Frau", holding a laurel wreath in his hands. The monument was erected in 1923, but in 1940 it was destroyed by fascists. Restoration of the historical landmark occurred in 1984.
In addition, the area is clearly visibleCathedral of the Luxembourg Our Lady and all its three towers. There is also a special observation deck. It is from it you can see the most beautiful places. For lovers of excursions there are trips to various attractions on buses with an open top.
Transfer of power
The whole area of Luxembourg, detailed information aboutwhich is available today to everyone, is in the management of one person - the Duke. According to a long tradition, the throne in the country is transferred to the elder man of the family of rulers, and if there is none, then the oldest daughter comes to his place. The family of dukes in the state enjoys great popularity among ordinary inhabitants, as the nobles symbolize the prosperity and stability of the state.
Although the area of Luxembourg in the th. km2 is not too impressive, yet in this country is very developed national cuisine. Local chefs combine in their recipes the achievements of German, Belgian and French cuisines. However, there are exclusively Luxembourg recipes. For example, milk pouring piglets, pork with beans, roast from a hare in Luxembourgish style are very popular. And what is especially famous for Luxembourg is the white wines, which gained recognition throughout the European continent. Also in the state produce many kinds of beer and effervescent wines.
With regard to crime in Luxembourg,In this country, the crime rate is rather low. This brings the duchy to one of the leading positions in the world in terms of security. However, statistics show that the number of pocket thefts has increased significantly lately, so do not lose vigilance in public places, especially at the airport and at railway stations.