The concept of civilization
The notion of civilization includes the totalityspiritual spheres, cultural and material values, organizations of management of a society. These are certain priority areas, forms of activity and norms presented in the form of social institutions and various material objects.
Consider all categories that are included in the concept of civilization.
- Culture - a set of norms, rules and values, entrenched in the minds and practices of society. For example, this language, literature, type of thinking, technology, science and tradition.
- Ideology is a system of social theories, ideas and views. In particular, political views, religion, aesthetics, morality, philosophy and law can be included here.
- Economics is a system of managing the economy. In particular, these are the production relations, the division of labor, the modes of production and the forms of ownership.
- Politics is a system of government. In particular, these are parties, the state system, social institutions and administrative art.
The concept of civilization is applicable to varioussocieties that have gone beyond the level of the primitive communal system. That is, this is the stage of development of mankind, following the barbarity, primitiveness and savagery.
Consider the main features of civilization. This is the presence of cities that are centers of cultural and economic life, the separation of physical and mental activity, the emergence of writing. The notion of civilization is not a model. Consequently, here you can talk about different types of society, which can be attributed to the civilized. Let us consider historical examples. In different time intervals in the world there were Catholic, Chinese, ancient, ancient Egyptian, Islamic civilizations. All of them had their own distinctive features, but also had much in common.
Civilizations are divided into two main types. First, these are the primary civilizations. They arise in the ethnic environment and are also divided into two levels. Mother and initial civilizations arise spontaneously. Subsidiary civilizations are formed from societies of the original type as a result of the interaction of the ethnic periphery and socio-cultural factor.
Secondly, these are secondary civilizations. They arise as a result of qualitative restructuring and improvement of socionormative traditions, norms and principles in already sufficiently developed societies.
The concept of culture and civilization has somesigns. For example, this is the spread of their social norms based on a certain way of life. That is, there is a tendency to unite civilizations into one whole. Most often this happens through long wars.
Each civilization creates around itselfSocio-cultural field that exerts influence on neighboring ethnic groups. In a developed society there are religious and ethical systems, expressed in rules, traditions, values and norms.
What is the difference between the main featurescivilizations? It is worth remembering that every society is formed in unique conditions. The development of civilization is affected by economic and cultural potential, the historical environment in the form of various ethnic groups, the natural landscape and even climatic conditions.
So, we examined the main features of developedsocieties. Here it is worth remembering another important definition. The civilizational approach to the development of society has several important distinctive features. First, he makes a person of the creator of history and progress. Secondly, the spiritual factor of the development of society plays an important role in the civilizational approach. Thirdly, the uniqueness of the history of individual nations, societies and countries is also taken into account.