The emergence of statehood among the Eastern Slavs - Normanism and antinormannism
Formation of the state in the ancient worldtestified to a significant improvement in economic, economic and political relations, awareness of unity, ethnic identity of numerous related tribes. However, the process was laborious and required great efforts on the part of the tribal elite and the people supporting it.
The emergence of statehood in the easternSlavs regularly causes discussion about its ancestors. Many authors are inclined to Varangian theory in the formation of the state among the Slavs. And who are these most Varangians? The nationality of the Varangians is a matter of dispute. So, according to some scientists, this people are Normans, Scandinavians. In their opinions they proceed from the fact that this was the era of the Norman sea invasions on European countries, the lands of the Eastern Slavs could also become objects of these campaigns.
The emergence of ancient Russian statehoodquite a long time in the historical science associated with the Normans and their leader Rurik. It was claimed that the Slavs themselves were not capable of this because of their backwardness. This theory appeared during the confrontation between Sweden and Russia during the Time of Troubles to justify the aggressive aspirations of the Scandinavians. And later, with the worsening of Russia's relations with the countries of the West, these views immediately appeared in foreign writings. Scientists who proposed this point of view on the emergence of statehood among the Eastern Slavs, began to be called Normanists, and the theory - Norman. The apologists of Normanism were some Russian scientists of German origin (Miller GF, Shletser AM), as well as those representatives of the official national historiography who promoted Normanism to strengthen the authority and eminence of the Rurik dynasty.
Opponents of the Norman theory of the emergence ofstatehood in the eastern Slavs in the eighteenth century were the famous Russian historians MV Lomonosov, VN Tatishchev. In their studies, they argued that Rurik and the Varangians are representatives of the Baltic Slavs who were associated with the Eastern Slavs by the commonality of culture, ethnogenesis, and language. Supporters of this position in historical science are called antinormannists.
Later, Russian and Soviet historiansIt is proved that the emergence of statehood among the Eastern Slavs was brewing long before the advent of the Varangians, and the facts of state education in antes are given as arguments. Later, the rudiments of the state are already more noticeable in the reign of Kiy. However, disputes on this issue do not subside, and the parties give various arguments in their favor. The main evidence of modern Normanists on the emergence of statehood among the Slavs is the archeological artifacts in the northwestern lands of the Slavs, which are interpreted as Scandinavian. Antinormannists defend their positions with the help of linguistics, anthropology, source study. And the main thing is the chronicle, in which Nestor quite clearly identifies the Varangians with the concept of "Rus." Thus, the emergence of statehood among the Eastern Slavs is an open question, although there are more than enough arguments from two sides, but there are supporters of one and the other point of view in science.