The names of the largest plates of the Earth. Versions of the formation of the planet
How did the continents and islands? What determines the name of the largest plates of the Earth? Where did our planet come from?
How it all began?
Everyone at least once thought about the originof our planet. For the deeply religious people, everything is simple: the earth was created by God in 7 days - and the point. They are unshakable in their confidence, even knowing the names of the largest lithospheric plates formed as a result of the evolution of the surface of the planet. For them the birth of our stronghold is a miracle, and no arguments of geophysicists, natural scientists and astronomers are capable of convincing them.
Scientists, however, hold a different opinion,based on hypotheses and assumptions. Imeno they build guesses, push versions and come up with a whole name. The largest plates of the Earth, this also touched.
At the moment, it is not known howThus, our firmament appeared, but there are many interesting opinions. It was scientists who unanimously decided that once there was a single giant continent, split as a result of cataclysms and natural processes. Also scientists have thought up not only the name of the largest plates of the Earth, but also have designated small.
Theory on the verge of fiction
For example, Immanuel Kant and Pierre Laplace, scientists fromGermany - believed that the universe emerged from the gas nebula, and the Earth is a slowly cooling planet whose earth's crust is nothing but a chilled surface.
Another scientist, Otto Schmidt, believed thatThe sun, as it passed through the gas-dust cloud, captured part of it. His version is that our Earth was never completely molten substance and originally was a cold planet.
If you believe the theory of the English scientist FredHoyle, the Sun had its own twin star, which exploded like a supernova. Almost all the fragments were thrown back at great distances, and a small number of those remaining around the Sun turned into planets. One of these fragments and became the cradle of humanity.
Version as an axiom
The most common history of the origin of the Earth is as follows:
- About 7 billion years ago, the primary cold planet was formed, after which its bowels began to gradually warm up.
- Then, during the so-called "lunar era"The hot lava flowed in giant quantities to the surface. This led to the formation of a primary atmosphere and served as an impetus for the formation of the earth's crust - the lithosphere.
- Thanks to the primary atmosphere on the planetappeared oceans, as a result of which the Earth was covered with a dense shell, representing the outlines of oceanic depressions and continental protrusions. In those faraway times, the water surface was much larger than the land area. By the way, the earth's crust and the upper part of the mantle is called the lithosphere, which forms lithospheric plates, which make up the overall "face" of the Earth. The names of the largest plates correspond to their geographical location.
The Giant Split
How did the continents and lithosphericplates? About 250 million years ago the Earth looked completely different than it is now. Then on our planet there was only one, just a giant continent called Pangea. Its total area impressed and equaled the area of all the existing continents, including the islands. Pangea from all sides was washed by the ocean, which was called Pantalassa. This huge ocean occupied the rest of the surface of the planet.
However, the existence of supermatter wasshort-lived. Inside the Earth processes were rampant, as a result of which the substance of the mantle began to spread in different directions, gradually stretching the continent. Because of this, Pangea first split into two parts, forming two continents - Laurasia and Gondwana. Then these continents gradually split into many parts, which gradually dispersed in different directions. In addition to new continents, lithospheric plates appeared. From the name of the largest slabs, it becomes clear where the giant faults were formed.
The remnants of Gondwana are Australia andAntarctica, as well as the South African and African lithospheric plates. It is proved that these plates gradually diverge in our time - the speed of movement is 2 cm per year.
The fragments of Laurasia turned into two lithosphericplates - North American and Eurasian. At the same time, Eurasia consists not only of the fragment of Laurasia, but also parts of Gondwana. The names of the largest plates that form Eurasia are the Hindustan, Arabian and Eurasian.
In the formation of the Eurasian continentdirect participation is taken by Africa. Its lithospheric plate is slowly approaching the Eurasian plate, forming mountains and elevations. It is because of this "union" that the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Ore Mountains, the Alps and the Sudeten appeared.
List of lithospheric plates
The names of the largest plates are as follows:
- South American;
- The Eurasian;
- North American;
- South American;
Plates of medium size are:
- Juan de Fuca.