The poem by AT Tvardovsky "On the Right of Memory". "By right of memory": a summary
One of the most famous Russian writers, AlexanderTrifonovich Tvardovsky, rightly considered a talented poet and journalist. He is one of the few gifted people who managed to print in the Soviet years. However, not all of Tvardovsky's works were approved by criticism and allowed for publication. Among the forbidden texts was the poem "By the Right of Memory". A brief summary of it will be discussed in this article.
History of creation
The poem "By the right of memory", a summarywhich will be discussed below, was written in the 1960s. But because of the ban it was published only in 1987. The work was originally conceived as part of the poem "For the distance - the distance," since Tvardovsky considered it unfinished, there was some kind of understatement in it: "I have not told. I can leave it ... "
However, later an additional chapter was formedin an independent poem. And this work reflected the writer's displeasure with the political and social changes of the 1960s: attempts to exalt Stalin again, conceal from the people the decisions of the party congress, growing totalitarianism, strict censorship, orderly denunciations, false letters on behalf of the "working people". All these changes reflected on the fate of the entire people and Tvardovsky himself. All this sincerely worries the writer, he can not stand aside and acts in the poem as a prosecutor of the authorities and a denouncer of her cruel, inhumane actions.
From the point of view of the genre, the poem can be calledlyrical philosophical meditation. Although the poet himself calls it a "road diary." The main actors of the work are the Soviet country, the people inhabiting it, as well as their deeds and accomplishments.
The genre peculiarity of the work "By the right of memory" is interesting, the short content of which testifies to the existence of a fairytale plot, as well as magical heroes:
- the main character returning home;
- hero-helper-tractor driver;
- anti-hero - a thief;
- savior - Stalin.
Also, the predominance of the fairy-tale beginsan abundance of sayings, sayings, proverbs in folklore style. Thus, Tvardovsky depicts reality in a mythological form, so many episodes have a profound symbolic meaning.
The main theme of the poem "On the Right of Memory" (shortthe content confirms this idea) is a theme of memory. But this problem is transformed into another, more dangerous - responsibility before the descendants for reluctance to deal with what happened in the past: "Who hides the past ... he is hardly with the future in harmony." Tvardovsky believed that no one has the right to forget the past, since it affects everyone and affects the future of the country, its development and the welfare of the people.
The poem is constructed as an expressive monologue of the lyric hero, concerned about the loss of continuity and the destruction of the connection between generations.
The poem "By the right of memory": a summary
The work consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to the youthful memories of the writer, she sounds warmly, ironically, filled with plans and dreams: "And where, to whom of us will ... hear his youth."
The dreams of the young poet are high and clean, his maindesire - to work for the benefit of his native country. And, if necessary, he is ready to give his life and his country. The writer remembers with melancholy and sadness of his youthful naivety and ignorance of all the adversities that destiny has prepared: "To love your motherland, / To fetch her for fire and water."
The second chapter of the work "On the Right of Memory"the content of which we are considering, is called "Son for father does not answer." This is the most tragic part not only in the poem, but also in the life of Tvardovsky. The fact that the writer's family was dekulakized and exiled to Siberia, Alexander Trifonovich himself remained in Smolensk only because in those years he separated from his relatives. Help the relatives of the poet could not do anything, and this whole life tormented him. In addition, he was branded with the "son of a kulak", which did not facilitate life in the Soviet Union. It was these experiences that reflected in the poem: "Thank the father of the people, that he forgave your father."
The third part of the poem sounds affirmativemonologue, where the writer defends the right to memory. Only while descendants remember the deeds of their ancestors, they are alive. Memory is a great gift of a man, and he should not renounce it.
The poem "By the right of memory" by many critics wasis called Tvardovsky's repentance. In it, the poet tries to atone for the mistakes of youth, his grief and regret pour into the beautiful lines of a brilliant work.
In the first chapter, together with youthful memoriesit is possible to notice a foretaste of historical changes that will turn into a hero's tragedy and conflict not only with the surrounding reality, but also with himself. It is the internal conflict that will become the main one in the second chapter of the work. The poet looks at different angles at Stalin's phrase "Son for father does not answer." These words were a kind of life-saving circle for those who did not want to share the fate of their parents. However, the lyric "I" of the poet rejects this help, he does not want to betray his father. Moreover, he stands up for the exiled parent. Tvardovsky is ready to answer for him, to defend the right to a human attitude towards the enemy of the people, thereby trying to atone for the youthful betrayal of his family.
But gradually the idea of responsibility for the affairs of parents grows into responsibility for the accomplishments of the whole country. In what was happening in Stalin's time, all those who silently looked at repression are guilty.
The poem Tvardovsky "By the right of memory" reflected alltests that the poet fell on the path of life. This is Stalin's repression, and the Great Patriotic War, and heavy post-war time, and thaw. His forbidden work became a confession, a cry of the soul, which is no longer able to keep silent about what has been experienced.