Tiered onions: planting, care, breeding
A few years ago, even the most experienced gardeners looked at this plant in amazement. Tie bow really looks a bit weird. On its high arrow in several "floors" are located the air "fruits". And there is a pattern: the higher the tiers, the smaller they become. For this, this vegetable culture and deserved its original name. However, he has other names: "Egyptian", "viviparous", "horned", etc. But many gardeners, he is known precisely as a multi-tiered bow. Planting and caring for them do not require special knowledge or skills, so it can be an ornament to any garden.
A bit of history
The first information about the form of onions, similar in morphological features to this plant, is in the ancient Chinese herbalist of the fourteenth century. It was called "lau-qi-tsun". The Chinese called it grass, not forming seeds and growing floors.
Biologists believe that the multi-tiered onions, the cultivation of which began in East Asia, came to England in the nineteenth century.And it was from there that began his victorious march through the countries of Europe. However, then this plant was called tree or Egyptian onions. Due to the very strong aroma and spicy taste of its airy "bulbballs", it was already used in the preparation of marinades of chopped vegetables as a seasoning. In Russia, this garden crop appeared much later - at the end of the last century.
According to experts, the leaves of this onion have excellent phytoncidal properties and can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Its green part is very rich in nutrients. Compared to the bulb variety, layered onions contain much more vitamin C and carotene.
Another valuable quality of this original plant is that it does not accumulate nitrates, and nutritionally significantly exceeds even a batun. In addition, this species enhances the secretory activity of the intestines and the stomach better than others, characterized as a pronounced bactericidal and antihelminthic folk remedy.
Belonging to the onion family, this garden plant has a very interesting appearance. Its leaves are wide, tubular, covered with a waxy bloom, as a result of which they acquire a bluish tint. They grow up to forty centimeters in length. The tubular arrow ends in an inflorescence, on which air bulbs are then formed. The height of the first "link" arrows can reach up to a meter. From the first inflorescence grows new, which also ends with air "fruits".
Thus, on one plant up to four levels can be formed on average. Air bulbs, weighing about one and a half grams, hang in a bunch on the inflorescences, forming on each from three to thirty such heads. The fruit is covered and durable peel.
Multi-tiered onions, the varieties of which are few, in our country have not yet received wide recognition, although in their properties, if not superior, they are not inferior to other varieties. Meanwhile, this plant is one of the best among those giving greens in early spring. It has a very elastic crunchy feather, while a baton, for example, has a soft and not so juicy one.
From the bulb and other perennial varieties of its kind, the multi-tiered variety is distinguished by an exotic floral arrow. It forms from two to five "floors", on each of which from three to eight bulbs of elongated and round shape grow together in nests. They are dressed in “shirts” in purple, yellow or brown.
The inner scales are whitish, with weak prozeleness. The size of these amazing aerial bulbs from the first to the last tier is gradually reduced. The largest of them are located below.
The arrows under the weight of the crop break, so they must be tied up. If this is not done, the peduncle may end up on the ground, and the bulbs will germinate in the soil where they fall. That is why sometimes a multi-tiered bow is called “walking.”
Often on long pedicels, white single flowers form among the heads, but they are sterile.
This plant does not form seeds, it reproduces only vegetatively or by dividing the bush. By July, his aerial bulbs sprout right on the bush, because they do not have a rest period. Underground ripen only by September.
Multi-tiered onions, planting and care for which are carried out in almost the same way as, for example, for the variety of the bulb, under certain conditions in one place you can grow up to five years. With proper agricultural practices, each such three-year-old plant can produce up to four kilograms of yield per square meter.
Many gardeners plant multi-tiered onions in the greens in early spring. At the end of autumn, its above-ground part almost completely dies off, and in this form it goes to winter. The plant is very cold-resistant: according to experts involved in the selection of vegetable crops, it is not afraid of even forty-degree cold - in the presence of a small snow cover and with a strong freezing of the soil. True, the plant should have a sufficiently developed root system.
However, sudden changes in temperature can be dangerous for this onion, especially in March and April, when after an early and prolonged thaw strong frosts suddenly come again. At the same time, even the bulbs hidden from the bush, hidden under a layer of snow, maintain their germination even on the very surface of the soil.
Experienced gardeners, who have already managed to get a harvest more than once, themselves determine when to plant a multi-tiered onion. During the summer landing, he manages to take root. After releasing the seedlings and forming a few leaves, the plant will go for wintering, and will begin to grow in early spring. If heads are planted in the ground immediately after they mature, then one particular feature of this culture must be taken into account: it will be possible to collect feathers only next year in the middle of March. Otherwise, removing the harvest in the fall, you can kill the onions, which in the fragile state will not be able to spend the winter.
Bottom bulbous need to be planted in a square nested scheme with a distance of twenty centimeters between them. Planting multi-tiered onions can be carried out more densely if the seedling is small. In this case, the depth of laying into the soil also changes: for large ones - about ten, for the rest - up to six centimeters.
At the same time, each fraction needs to be planted separately, because they have not only the type of sowing, but also the time of harvesting the feather.
Some gardeners, already familiar with the features of this culture, use a more rational option.Dividing the bed into two parts, they often plant heads on one, and on the other - less often.
In early spring from the first part they harvest the greenery together with the bulbs, pulling out the plantings and thus thinning the plot, and leave the second until the summer in order to have lush greens in June, which will just need to be cut. Obtained from the tiers of the bulb are immediately placed in the ground. Cropped hemp will again give a bountiful harvest, and the planted material will be able to take root and safely winter. Apparently, thanks to these features, many people prefer to have a multi-tiered bow in their garden.
This plant is cultivated in both perennial and annual crops. It grows best in areas of the southern or south-western slopes, early released from the snow cover, on light fertile soils. In general, its cultivation differs little from the agricultural machinery of batun, but it also has its own characteristics.
In nonchernozem zones, as a perennial crop, especially in northern and wetlands, the multi-tiered variety sprouts better on ridges, and as a one-year plant, planted on dry areas in middle and southern regions - on a flat surface.At the same time the preparation of the plot with the scheme of its landing is no different from the cultivation of the baton.
In spring, a multi-tiered onion sprouts one of the first among perennials. Its leaves grow very quickly, even with some shaded area. Experienced gardeners say that growing this plant is not at all difficult. It will feel good on any soil and in any conditions.
Of course, on loose soil, clean from weeds, with frequent watering and proper fertilizing, it will please with its harvest, but even in a forgotten far corner of the plot it will bear fruit.
By the fifth or sixth year, many new basal bulbs are formed, so thickening of the planting occurs. In turn, the underground part of the bulbhobes noticeably shrinks. Therefore, the plant is transplanted or simply thinned.
How to breed a multi-tiered bow
The seeds of this plant, as is known, does not form. It propagates with basal or bulbous bulbs. The latter take root much faster. It is better for landing to take large material from the first two tiers. In the first year in the fall, they form two or three daughter bulbs.
Heads for sowing must be ripe and have roots or root hillocks on the bottom.
The multiplication of tiered onions is best done using material collected from three- or four-year-old plants. Heads intended for forcing, as well as for podzimney or spring disembarkation, need to be dried and stored at a temperature of about zero degrees.
After the snow from the onion beds need to remove all dead vegetation residues. After that proceed to feeding. Usually, by the third or fourth year after the landing of the bed of a multi-tiered onion, they become too thick. Therefore, in the fall or early spring, they are thinned out, leaving one, maximum two basal heads in each nest. Some of the extra bulbs are used in food, while they are perfect as a planting material.
The highest yield has a two or three year bush. In the long cool and rainy weather, the air bulbs mature worse. The leaves grow well and retain their green appearance right down to the most frost.
In dry hot weather, bulbs should be collected at the end of July, maximum in early August, because by this period the arrows, yellowing, begin to dry out.
In early spring, a multi-tiered onion is better to grow under the film. In this case, the greens can be obtained about fifteen days earlier than with open ground. Moreover, as they say experienced gardeners, it will have a lighter color and a less spicy taste.
In early spring, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers in the ground. Potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate are mixed at the rate of ten grams per square meter of land. A month later, feeding the beds with onions should be repeated once more, not forgetting to loosen the rows.
In our country, unfortunately, so far only one variety of this amazing onion has been zoned: this is “Odessa winter 12”.