What are the paronyms? Examples of Paronyms
“Dress”, “put on” - we confuse these two words so stupidly ... I would like to add: and not only them. Yes, in Russian, rich and complex, there are a great many twin words, or, more precisely, twin words, which are similar in appearance, but completely different inside. Let's not beat around the bush, but let's face it: we are talking about paronyms. And what are the paronyms? Examples of their use, or, rather, the "collision" in speech, oral and written .... On this and not only in this article.
We read news: "In the country createdsinglethe competent authority that will investigate economic crimes. ” It seems that's right. And if so: "In the country createdonlythe competent authority that will investigate economic crimes? ” Does the meaning change? And how! The word “single”, appearing in this context as “common, possessing internal unity”, and the word “unique” - “exceptional, only one” - are two completely different lexical units — paronyms, the same can saying change beyond recognition.
Or here's another case in life. In kindergarten in the changing room on the wall hangs a poster: "Announcement of the autumnfakes". A spelling mistake or not, but a peculiar game of paronyms turned out. "Crafts" - the result of creative work and "fake" - a fake, fake thing. What did it lead to? By mistake, serious and funny at the same time. It turns out that children can not only make amazing things with their own hands, but have already learned and skillfully forge them, and even compete in this “art”. So the question is what paronyms are in practice. But at least “dry, my friend, theory is everywhere, and the tree of life is lush green”, the theory is still needed ....
What is the word paronyms?
So, the theory ... What are paronyms and what are they eating with? In a literal translation from the Greek language, “paronim” means “close name” (onyma is the name, para is near, near). In other words, these are lexemes that are close, similar to the “face” - in pronunciation, in sound, in common root, in lexical and grammatical affiliation, but without any “kinship” - partially or completely different in meaning. Let us examine several examples: diplomatic (relating to the activities of implementing the foreign policy of a particular state) - diplomatic (skillfully, flexibly,fine acting); draw (write, indicate, outline, define) - draw (make a scheme or drawing); to grow blunt (to become less acute or to become indifferent, refractory) - to blunt (to make blunt: “to blunt the knife”). That's what paronyms are. The examples speak for themselves. Close in meaning or, on the contrary, completely different paronyms: getting confused in their use is easy enough. Therefore, if there is the slightest doubt as to which of two similar words is better to use, do not be lazy and look in the dictionary. Which one This will be discussed further.
Problems of paronymy
Dictionaries are different. There is also a dictionary of paronyms. What is a paronyms dictionary? In modern Russian, there are not too many paronyms. For the first time, the Dictionary of Paronyms of the Russian Language was published in Tbilisi in 1971 under the editorship of N. P. Kolesnikov. It contains consonant pairs of words, similar in morphological composition, but having different meanings. Later, in 1984, another “Dictionary of Paronyms of the Russian Language”, O. Vishnyakova, was published, in which she singled out about a thousand paronymic series. This is a lot or a little - a relative concept, one thing is important: one cannot underestimate their role and significance, otherwise we cannot avoid the mass of speech errors and reduce the general meaning of what was said or written to zero.
The study of the problems of paronimy in Russian linguistics in different years was addressed by such scholars as N. P. Kolesnikov, A. A. Evgrafova, O.V. Vishnyakova, Yu. A. Belchikov and many others. But, despite the huge amount of scientific work, modern linguists have not yet developed a unified view of many questions. This also concerns the question of what paronyms are, the definition also affects the nature of the paronymic phenomena, and the development of certain criteria for the inclusion of certain words in the paronymic series. In this regard, the question of the classification of paronyms, a sort of streamlining of a considerable number of lexical units, invariably arises.
Structural-semantic separation of paronyms
We note right away that such scientists, such as O. V. Vishnyakova, V. I. Krasnykh and V. N. Shtybin, adhere to this classification. According to her, paronyms are of four types:
- Complete paronyms (earthen - earthly, spiritual - brass, undress - dress up), i.e. these are words with one root, similar in sound, with emphasis on the same syllable, but not identical in meaning.
- Incomplete paronyms (comic - comical, dogmatic - dogmatic, dramatic - dramatic), i.e.these are single-root words, “in which the semantic delimitation of a volume of meanings is not completed completely, which causes their convergence”, or, in other words, words in one or another paronymic pair remain synonymous in meaning.
- Parite paronyms (remnants - the remains, provide - submit), i.e., words of different meanings, but having one root and similar in sound.
- Conditional paronyms (excavator - escalator, drill - trill, antinomy - antimonia), ie, words formed from different roots, but similar in sound, which leads to their erroneous use.
Functional-semantic division of paronyms
O. P. Antipina proposed her own classification. It is she who, in her opinion, quite fully reflects such a layer of lexical units as paronyms, because paronymy is, above all, a speech phenomenon. By the way these words collide in speech, there are two groups of paronyms:
- Recurrent words are paronyms, similar in sound and meaning, which leads to their erroneous confusion in speech. They, in turn, are divided into single-root and multi-rooted (handicraft - handicraft).
- Occasional words are paronyms, similar in sound, but completely different in meaning, which "are created and enter into paronymic relations only in context." They are also single-root (removable - filming) and multi-rooted (to envy - to manage).
Morphological division of paronyms
In this classification, there are three types of paronyms:
- Suffixes are paronyms that are formed using suffixes such as-n / -live, -anical / -inc, -at / -aste, -esk / -n, -chat /and others (fastener - possessive, horticultural - horticultural, enchanting - enchanting). By the way, most of this group of paronyms are adjectives.
- Prefixes are paronyms formed by appending prefixes to the root, phonetically consonant- / pro, o- / from-(deed - misdemeanor, swallow - swallow).
- Root - are paronyms with different roots and meanings, but similar in sound. As a rule, this group includes nouns (lizard - foot and mouth disease, dictation - dictate, ignorant - ignorant).
What are homonyms and paronyms?
Paronyms have another name - “false homonyms”. Why false and why homonyms? Homonyms are wordshaving exactly the same spelling, sound, but different meaning: schedule (work plan) - schedule (artist), smooth surface (a kind of embroidery) - smooth surface (flat surface); braid (instrument of labor) - braid (braided hair), etc. From the examples it is clear that, unlike the homonyms, paronyms are similar in shape, but not the same: artistic - artistic, stony - stone, mystical - mystical.
False translator friends
And in conclusion of the topic “What are Paronyms” I would like to mention one more interesting phenomenon called interlanguage paronymy. In other words, in a paronymic pair there can be lexical units of not only one language. Words from different languages sometimes coincide in pronunciation, but have different meanings. Such cases are not uncommon, and most often they are observed between related languages: misto (ukr.) Is a city, not a place; vrodlivy (Ukr.) - beautiful, but not ugly; sklep (Polish) - shop, not a crypt; nalog (Polish) is a bad habit, not a tax; mist (English) - fog, mist (German) - manure.
And one more vivid example. The Ukrainian poet V. Sosyury has the line "To the Rose of the Tram".So, once the Russian poet Mikhail Svetlov translated it into Russian as “The tram rang by roses.” Well, it sounds beautiful, but meaningless, and, as K. Chukovsky noted, “Sosyury’s creative face” appeared the form. What let the translator down? There is only one answer - interlanguage paronyms, or, as they are also called, “false friends of a translator”.