What is a "reserved summer"?
The introduction of the reserved years was one of the steps to the establishment of serfdom in Russia. This article will discuss this issue in detail. Background and consequences of the decree under consideration will also be given.
Enslavement of the peasants
The concept of “reserved years” is closely related to the phenomenon of serfdom. What is the essence of this phenomenon, where it first arose?
It is known that the position of the peasants is directly related to the economic system of the state. And since in the West all such processes took place faster than in Russia, and started much earlier, it is not surprising that most European countries introduced serfdom for their peasants in the early Middle Ages, and by the beginning of the New Age they had already experienced this dark period. stories.
However, in states such as Germany, Poland and Austria-Hungary, this phenomenon arose in the 16-17 centuries, and was finally abolished only in the nineteenth century. Thus, having passed almost simultaneously with Russia a stage of serfdom, these countries found themselves at a new stage of economic development.
Explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language say that the word "commandment" means "ban" or "command". In this case, the first of them is most suitable for deciphering this name.
Thus, the reserve can be called the time that came with the adoption of the decree on the reserve years of Boris Godunov in 1592 to abolish the so-called St. George Day.
Here you, grandmother, and St. George's day!
Such a proverb appeared about the same time. So what did this decree of Tsar Boris read? Until its adoption, Yuryev's day was the date when the peasants who worked for the landowner could move to another owner. They had the right to do this during the week before and after that day. But they received such a chance only on condition that by that time it was possible to pay all taxes paid to the landowner and the state.
Thus, with the abolition of this right, people engaged in agriculture acquired a slave position comparable to the life of slaves.
Sacred summer continued in Russia until the abolition of serfdom. This event, as we know, happened in 1861 under Alexander II.
That is why the saying “That's it for you, grandmother, and St. George’s Day!” Appeared in the people. Saying this, people usually mean that something has happened that is not quite pleasant for them.
Statute of limitations
However, even with the establishment of protected years for people who were in serfdom, still remained the path to freedom. The path is illegal, but practiced quite often. He consisted in escaping from a master who was too cruel with his peasants.
Replaced by the abolished concept of the reserved years comes a new phenomenon - the age-specific years. This was the name of the statute of limitations for serfs who escaped from their landlord master.
This period of time was originally calculated for ten years, then was reduced to five, and in the middle of the 17th century was completely canceled. This led to the complete completion of the enslavement of the peasants in Russia.
The life of the peasants to serfdom
Thus, in 1592, the reserved summer season began to operate and continued, as already mentioned, until the decree on the abolition of serfdom, adopted in 1861.
And what happened before that? How did the peasants live before the reserved years (the years of their operation were 1592 to 1861)?
It can be said that their position was much better. At least in a significant part of the then peasantry. Since, along with the unfree farmers, there were also people who were engaged in farming on their own lands, being absolutely free.
Such grain growers were then called the simple word "peasants." They were completely independent; they could have private property, which sometimes included slaves.
Not free part of the population of Ancient Russia was divided, in turn, into the following subgroups:
Each of these groups of people was almost completely powerless.
The best position of the above 4 types of peasantry occupied smerdy. They, unlike all others, had the right to private property. However, owning a piece of arable land, they themselves belonged to the landowners. And in the event of their death, the property passed to their masters.
Such peasants, who became slaves in exchange for land and other property, were called procurements. Such people did not work for the owner for the rest of their lives, but for a certain period, until they extinguished the entire cost of the arable land plot allocated to them.
The most disastrous situation was the slaves. They had no right to private property.Their life was equated with the existence of inanimate objects that were in possession of the owners.
Thus, the introduction of protected years (years from 1592 to 1861) marked the beginning of the enslavement of the Russian peasants, repeatedly worsening their already hard life.