What parts of speech are there?
Russian scientists distinguish parts of speech in different ways. Our article will tell about those parts of speech that are studied in the school course. These are 12 parts of speech, which are divided into independent and service. Let's take a closer look at what parts of speech are in Russian.
Independent parts of speech
A noun is a part of speech that is self-contained and answers the "what?" "who?", and also denotes the subject. In their meaning, all nouns can be divided into animate (boy, horse) and inanimate (stool, notebook), in proper names (Moscow, Peter, Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper) and nominal (numerous names of objects and phenomena: table, coin, heart , society, love, etc.).
An adjective is a part of speech expressing a feature of an object, answering the questions "what?" "what?" "whose?" etc. Adjectives are divided into relative (wooden, reading), qualitative (large, beautiful) and possessive (sisters, fox).
A numeral is a part of speech, denoting the number of objects and the number and order in the count.The numerals are grammatical and meaningful and are divided into ordinal (tenth, second) and quantitative (ten, two).
The pronoun is a part of speech indicating signs, objects and their quantities, but not naming them. In sentences, pronouns are most often used as subject or definition, rarely as a circumstance. Sometimes pronouns are used even as a predicate.
A verb is a part of speech, denoting the state of an object or an action, while answering the questions “what to do?”, “What to do?” etc. The verbs are divided into perfect and imperfect, real and passive voice, transitive and intransitive, reflexive and irrevocable. Also, verbs have an initial form or an infinitive. In a sentence, verbs are often predicates, but they can act as subject or definition.
The participle is a special form of the verb, denoting the signs of the subject by action. The sacrament answers the questions: "what?", "What does he do?", "What did he do?", "What did he do?", "What was done?" etc. Communions are divided into passive and valid.The real signifies the sign of the object that produces the action, and the passive sign - the sign of the object that is experiencing this action. ("reading boy" - a boy who reads himself; a "readable book" is a book that someone reads, that is, someone performs actions with this book).
The verbal adverb is a form of the verb, denoting an additive action, while there is a primary action. The participle answers the questions "what are you doing?", "What are you doing?". The participles are perfect and imperfect. (“Jumping out” - a perfect view, “jumping” - an imperfect look).
An adverb is a part of speech expressing a sign of an action or another sign (to do beautifully, very beautiful). An adverb is an unchangeable part of speech, which in a sentence is most often a circumstance.
Service parts of speech
Now let's consider what service parts of speech includes the system of parts of speech of the Russian language.
A preposition is a part of speech expressing the dependence of a noun, pronoun, and numeral on the other words in the phrase and in the sentence. Prepositions can not be changed, and are not members of the proposal.Prepositions can be derivative and non-derivative (non-production: a, k, from, c; production: on the contrary, along, because, thanks).
A union is a service part of speech that connects homogeneous members that are in a simple sentence, as well as a few simple sentences in a complex one. Unions are subordinate (therefore, to, that) and composing (a, and, but).
A particle is a part of speech that introduces different shades into sentences and serves to form new forms of words (come on, come on, let it be, b). Particles are not members of the proposal and do not change.
Interjection is a special part of speech that expresses feelings, but does not name them. It does not belong to the group of service parts of speech, nor to the group of independent (oh, oh, hee, hee, hee, ugh, brrr).
Thus, it can be noted that all parts of speech in Russian are diverse and do not resemble each other. Only by combining with each other can they form phrases and sentences.