What should be the thickness of the wall of the house (load-bearing, external, internal)?
Despite the fairly rapid development of building technologies and the emergence of new types of building materials, brick, as before, remains the most popular and in demand. This is explained very simply: it has the strength, durability and excellent performance characteristics. A brick wall built according to all the rules and having a thickness calculated with regard to the purpose and type of construction will be able to serve for several decades.
Brick is a very reliable material. If the brickwork is laid according to the technology and has the required thickness, it will be able to withstand heavy loads from the roof structure, floors and floors without problems. In addition, this building material is endowed with such qualities as good sound insulation, rather low thermal conductivity, high resistance to bending and deformation, frost resistance, durability.
Brickwork, calculated according to established standards, does not require the construction of a bulky foundation, but at the same time it will have excellent bearing capacity. But all these qualities can be lost if the thickness of the walls of the house, which is necessary for specific conditions, is not taken into account.
The lack of bricks can be attributed to the fact that it is inferior to many wall building materials in terms of heat and sound characteristics. For example, when it is -30 ° C outside (and in Russia it is not uncommon), the thickness of the outer walls should be 64 cm. Whereas under the same climatic conditions, the thickness of the walls from a timber is 18 cm.
What to consider when choosing the type of masonry brick wall
When choosing the thickness of brick walls, it is important to consider:
- Expected load. After all, if a house is single-storey, then the load, of course, will be completely different than in a high-rise one. In addition to the number of floors, of great importance is the functionality of the masonry.
- Climatic conditions. Any building must provide the necessary temperature inside the house. In other words, during the construction of a brick wall, its thickness should be such that it retains heat indoors and does not freeze in the winter season without heating.
- Compliance.When calculating the thickness of a brick wall, it is necessary to be guided by the current State Standards, so that the erected structure is completely safe during operation.
- Aesthetic look. Different types of masonry look different. For example, laying in one brick, as a rule, looks more elegant than a similar one and a half or two bricks.
The modern building materials market offers customers a variety of bricks:
- Single. The dimensions of such a brick: height is 6.5 cm, length - 25 cm, width is 12 cm. The thermal conductivity of such a brick is 0.6-0.7 W / ms.
- One and a half Its dimensions are as follows: length — 25 cm, height — 8.8 cm, and width — 12 cm. From a financial point of view, such a brick is much more efficient to use for the construction of external load-bearing walls.
- Double. Its parameters: length - 25 cm, width is 12 cm, height - 13.8 cm.
From a financial point of view, queen-size and double bricks are most effective. Their size allows to erect bearing walls or basement of buildings of greater thickness, using less mortar than is necessary in the construction of similar houses made of single bricks.
What should be the wall thickness
Consider the parameters that depend on the thickness of the wall of bricks.
- Stability, strength and reliability of the structure. It is important to bear in mind that when a bearing inner or outer brick wall is built, it must be sufficiently thick to ensure the stability of the building and be able to withstand not only the weight of the floors and all floors, but also the negative external effects of natural phenomena such as wind, snow and rain.
- The durability of the building being built. This parameter is provided by many factors, including compliance with construction technologies, consideration of climate and soil features, the right choice of materials, etc. However, the strength and thickness of the wall are in this list in the first place.
- Sound and thermal insulation. When building a brick wall, its width must be calculated in such a way that it can optimally provide insulation from cold and external sounds. Thus, the greater the thickness of a brick wall, the more effectively it protects against these factors. However, here you need to take into account the cost of building materials.It is simply irrational to build walls that are thicker than stipulated by standards for certain climatic zones.
Standard Sizes of Brickwork
One of the main characteristics of a brick structure is the wall thickness. Determine it is not difficult. According to the established norms and standards, this value should be a multiple of half the length of the brick, i.e. 12 cm.
But today, the factories produce brick blocks of various sizes. In addition, the builders when working with this material use different layouts. This means that the walls will eventually be different in width.
Wall thickness, according to SNIP, depending on the type of masonry and the number of bricks used:
- half-brick - wall thickness 12 cm;
- one brick is 25 cm;
- one and a half bricks - walls 38 cm;
- two bricks - 51 cm;
- two and a half bricks - 64 cm.
What is the most economically sound wall thickness?
Many professional builders believe that the width of a brick wall, exceeding 38 cm, is not economically feasible. By itself, a brick is a very durable material, therefore, it is more profitable to use other additional measures to strengthen the structure and improve thermal insulation, rather than increasing the thickness of the walls.Heavy construction will only increase the load on the foundation. As a result, construction costs will increase significantly, as the foundation of the building will need to be strengthened.
Interior wall thickness
Internal partitions of the structure are designed to divide the entire area of the house into separate rooms, as well as for sound and heat insulation of rooms. The optimum thickness of the walls of bricks located inside the building is 12 cm (erection of a half-brick). For a comfortable stay of this size is enough.
Often during the construction of brick blocks laid "on the edge." This allows you to get a thinner partitions - only 6.5 cm. This can significantly save on consumables. True, the heat and sound insulation qualities of the rooms will leave much to be desired.
Exterior brick walls
In order for the external walls to serve as a solid support and to perform heat-insulating functions, their thickness must be at least 25 cm.
If the thickness of the bearing walls is insufficient, in the winter at low temperatures they will begin to wet. Then you will have to either thicken the structure or additionally warm it.Both options imply additional financial costs.
Bearing brick walls and their thickness
External bearing walls are designed to bear the brunt of the upper floors, roofs and partitions. Naturally, they should be much stronger than others.
When choosing the thickness of the bearing walls, the following factors are taken into account:
- climatic features;
- location of the future building;
- size and layout of the building;
- estimated construction budget.
It should be understood that the thickness of the bearing walls should be at least 38 cm (which corresponds to the laying of 1.5 bricks), and in cold regions - 51-64 cm.
In a residential building, some internal brick partitions are also bearing. Here it will be enough to make a laying of 1 brick, while the thickness of the walls of the house will be 25 cm. Such a structure will withstand any loads without cracking and without deforming.
How to reduce the thickness of the brickwork by improving thermal insulation
Each developer, of course, cares about the price of the issue, and, of course, there is a desire to make the process as cheap as possible. But at the same time to make sure that the savings did not affect the reliability, durability and insulating qualities of the building.
There is a technology of well-laying, the principle of which is to build load-bearing exterior walls in 2 rows. The empty space that remains between them is filled with a porous material:
- light concrete mix;
- organic insulation;
- expanded clay;
- polystyrene foam.
This design of external bearing walls can significantly reduce the number of bricks, reduce the weight of the building, increase the noise and heat insulation. Such walls are durable, thick and reliable.
As an additional thermal insulation, you can make a ventilated facade using special thermal insulation panels, various cladding materials or plaster.
When finishing brick external walls they need to be warmed from the inside. This operation is performed as follows:
- The inner surface of the outer walls is sheathed with insulation.
- Insulated vapor barrier film on the insulation.
- The resulting structure is covered with a reinforcing metal mesh and plastered.
- Decorative wall trim is performed. Finishing materials are selected depending on the taste of home owners.
The use of this technology provides the construction of high performance, while reducing construction costs.