White Mosque (Bolgar): how to get, description
Contact with ancient history foreverleaves an indelible impression in the soul. Who lived in that era, that people felt what they dreamed of, how they lived and died? Every time, visiting ancient cities and settlements, we come across a piece of a strange, long-disappeared era, after which there were houses, utensils, weapons, ornaments, works of art - everything that survived for millennia and millennia.
The White Mosque (Bolgar) is a very young architectural monument, but it absorbed the whole culture of the ancient Bulgarian Khanate, once great so great that it could repel the Golden Horde.
The Bulgarian Kingdom
For the first time the Bulgarians are mentioned in the chroniclesByzantine sources of the 2nd century, but already in the 4th century they are referred to as the numerous tribal grouping that settled on the eastern coast of the Azov and Black Seas.
Some of them fell under the influence of the Khazars and leftin the direction of the Volga, where it remained in the 10th century, forming the Bulgarian kingdom. It occupied a vast territory for those times: the Kama, the Middle Volga, the White River and lands along the Ural River.
Gradually, the population grew, the influence of neighborsThe Turks left a misprint on religion, and people accepted Islam. From the cities the largest was the city of Bolgar, which became the capital of the kingdom. In the 11th century, it was home to 10,000 people, which at that time was considered a huge city.
The reason for the fall of the Bulgarian kingdom was resentment,inflicted by the Golden Horde. It happened when Bolgar tried to take Genghis Khan with his army, but was defeated, during which 4000 of his soldiers were captured. They were not killed or made slaves, but simply exchanged each soldier for one ram, thereby showing what they consider the Mongol-Tatar army.
Genghis Khan died, but mortal resentment remained. The Bulgars managed to avenge themselves only in 1236, when the soldiers of the Golden Horde simply dared the city, destroying its inhabitants from young to old. About those events you can find out by visiting an open-air museum in the city of Bolgar.
The capital of the Bulgarian kingdom, founded in the 10th centurytoday is in Tatarstan, and you can get acquainted with its history by making a tour from Kazan. The constructed White Mosque (Bolgar) is located opposite the old settlement as a symbol of the resurrection of the great Khanate from the ashes of times. After all, a thousand years ago there was a thriving settlement here, where houses and mosques, palaces and fortresses were built, some of which have survived to this day. Crafts were developed in the city and trade was brisk, and by the 14th century, up to 50,000 people lived here. Archeologists revealed that during this period in the kingdom there were up to 2,000 settlements and 150 cities.
Volga Bulgaria traded with China, the averageAsia, Rus and Byzantium, and her products of bronze and silver, fur and leather were well known all over the world. It was a truly great land, from which there were only a few architectural monuments and numerous artisan products of that time.
Remained of the former greatness of the ancient kingdomThe fortification is an insignificant part of architecture, but even from it one can judge how big and significant Bolgar was. For example, in Scandinavia this country was named in its own way "Burgarland", as well as "Gardarika", which meant "the land of cities".
Currently, up to now, there are:
- Cathedral mosque, which was an early period of the Golden Horde.
- East and North Mausoleum.
- Khan's tomb.
- The White and the Black Chambers.
- Khan's bath, which, according to the archaeologists' assumption, was intended solely for meetings of high-ranking persons.
- Small minaret and the temple of the Assumption.
All monuments are well preserved, but today you canstraight from the past to make a step into the present: on the southern side of the site of the site is the White Mosque (Bolgar). Address: Tatarstan, st. Working. All people can visit it, regardless of religious views.
Construction of the White Mosque
The White Mosque (Tatarstan) is a sampleculture, characteristic of the ancient city. Looking at this extraordinarily beautiful and airy building, one can imagine what the capital of the great kingdom looked like. The mosque was built by the project of architect Sergey Shakurov, who previously studied the best Islamic architectural monuments of different countries.
The construction of the complex began in 2010 andbecame one of the projects to revive the ancient city of Bolgar. The design of the already constructed mosque and surrounding buildings took 1200 tons of white marble, which gave it an unusually bright and solemn appearance.
As a result, the White Mosque (Bolgar) became a reala complex consisting of a prayer hall, two minarets, a madrasah and the residence of the mufti located on a large prayer square. Around it is a beautiful arcade and a young orchard. The entire complex, together with the floating clouds during the day and the stars at night, is reflected in a large artificial pond with a fountain, which gives it some resemblance to the famous mausoleum of the Taj Mahal.
Minarets reach a height of 46.6 m, diameterThe main dome is 10 meters high, its height inside the mosque is 17 meters. Outside, the building is traditionally decorated with arabesques, tulips and geometric figures. Internal painting contains excerpts from the holy book of Muslims.
In honor of the opening of a new mosque and revivalthe ancient city of the White Mosque (Bolgar) received as a gift the world's largest copy of the Koran weighing 800 kg. To load it, it took 16 people, and you can flip it only by putting on your hands gloves.
Bolgar City, White Mosque: how to get to
Nowadays a tourist route to the city of Bolgar is becoming popular. The White Mosque can be reached along the Volga River by tram from the river port of Kazan, or by car or bus.
Equally interesting is the old settlement - the remains of the ancient capital Bulgar, dating back to the 10th-14th centuries.
The white mosque is the crown of the city, but it should be remembered that this is not just an architectural monument, but a functioning religious institution, therefore it is necessary to observe local rules:
- Shoes should be removed and left at the entrance, and shoe covers worn on their feet.
- Women should cover their heads with a handkerchief and cover their shoulders, if they are open.
- For women, there is a special place for prayers at the top of the mosque behind the carved parapet.
Never insult the feelings of believers by examining and discussing the mosque during prayer. It is better to come later and consider everything carefully, without disturbing anyone.